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- 2. Testimony of Richard F. Healing, Member, National Transportation Safety Board before the House Judiciary Committee State of Maryland Regarding House Bill 763. February 12, 2004. (ntsb.gov/Speeches/healing/rfh040212.htm+high+BAC+drivers&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=4&gl=us)
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- 4. Hughes, Kim. DWI court aims to change lives; People admitting alcohol addiction can take part in county program. Houston Chronicle, March 29, 2007; National Drug Court Institute. DWI Courts and DWI/Drug Courts: Reducing Recidivism , Saving Lives (ndci.org); National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Guiding Principles for DWI Courts. (nhtsa.dot.gov)
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- 7. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). Laws: Vehicle and License Plate Sanctions. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2004.
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- 10. Mosher, James, et al.State laws mandating or promoting training programs for alcohol servers and establishments: An assessment of statutory and administrative procedures. Journal of Public Health Policy, 2001, 23(1), 91-113; Saltz, R. Server Intervention and Responsible Beverage Service Programs. In: Office of the Surgeon General. Surgeon General's Workshop on Drunk Driving: Background Papers. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1989. Pp. 169-179; Russ, N., and Geller, E. S. Training bar personnel to prevent drunken driving: A field evaluation. American Journal of Public Health, 1987, 77, 952-954; McKnight, A. J. Development and Field Test of a Responsible Alcohol Service Program. Vol. 3, Final Results. Technical report. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 1988; Holder, H. & Wagenaar, A. Mandated Server Training and Reduced Alcohol-Involved Traffic crashes: A time series analysis of the Oregon experience. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 1994, 26(1), 89-97.
- 11. Hellstrom, David. "Reducing Risk: The Prevention Collaborative's Positive Social Norming Campaign." Conference presentation at the National Conference on the Social Norms Model, July 17, 2003, Boston, MA; Collaboration and social norms: The key to reducing impaired driving among college students in Minneapolis/St. Paul. The Peer Educator, October 2002, Vol. 25, No.3; National Social Norms Resource Center. Minnesota DWI Prevention: The Prevention Collaborative (socialnorm.org/CaseStudies/minnesotadwi.php+%22social+norms%22+DWI&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=1&gl=us).
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Confinement: Does It Work? In: J. Petersilia, A.J. Lurigio and J.M. Byrne
(eds.), Smart Sentencing. The Emergence of Intermediate Sanctions. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 1995, (pp. 54-67).
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mandatory jail sanction on DWI recidivism. Research Notes. 1986 (June)
Washington, D.C.: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration; Homel, R. Policing and Punishing the Drinking Driver: A Study of General and Specific Deterrence. NY: Springer Verlag, 1988; Joksch, H.C. The Impact of Severe Penalties on Drinking and Driving. Washington, D.C.: AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety, 1988; Ross, H.L., and Klette, H. (1995). Abandonment of mandatory jail for impaired drivers in Norway and Sweden. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 1995, 27(2),151-157.
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- 28. Drowsy driving is greatly underreported because there is no test for it, as there is for intoxication, no clear way to identify it, and many states don't even have a code for it on their vehicle accident reporting forms. The U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) estimates that about 100,000 police-reported crashes annually involve drowsiness/fatigue as a principal cause. It estimates that these crashes cause $12.5 billion in monetary losses each year. Sleepiness and fatigue also play a role in crashes attributed to other causes. About 1,000,000 crashes annually -- one-sixth of all crashes -- are thought to be caused by driver inattention and lapses. Sleep deprivation and fatigue make such lapses of attention more likely to occur. In a 1999 National Science Foundation poll, 62% of all adults surveyed in the U.S. reported driving a car or other vehicle while they were drowsy during the previous year. Twenty-seven percent reported that they had, at some time, fallen asleep while driving. People are more likely to fall asleep on high-speed, long, boring, rural highways. The New York State Police estimates that 30% of all fatal accidents on the New York State Thruway occur because drivers fall asleep at the wheel. Studies suggest truck driver fatigue may contribute to at least 30 to 40% of all heavy truck accidents. (Facts about Drowsy Driving The Peer Educator, 2000, 23(4), 9 &14) To learn more visit dui.com/whatsnew/sleep.html.
- 29. Insurance Information Center. Cell Phones and Driving. 2007. (iii.org/media/hottopics/insurance/cellphones/) ; Recarte, M. A. & Nunes, L. M. (2003). Mental Workload While Driving: Effects on Visual Search, Discrimination, and Decision Making. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 2003, 2(9), 119-137; Strayer, D. L., Drews, F. A. & Johnston W. A. (2003). Cell Phone-Induced Failures of Visual Attention During Simulated Driving. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 2003, 1(9), 23-32; Strayer, D. L. & William J. A. (2001). Driven to distraction: Dual-Task Studies of Simulated Driving and Conversing on a Cellular Telephone. Psychological Science, 2001, 6(12), 462-466; Sundeem, M. Cell Phones and Highway Safety: 2002 State Legislatures Update. Denver, CO: National Council of State Legislatures, 2003.
- 30. Adapted from Hanson, D. J., and Engs, R. C. Drinking Behavior: Taking Personal Responsibility. In: Venturelli, P. J. (ed.) Drug Use in America: Social, Cultural, and Political Perspectives. Boston, Massachusetts: Jones and Bartlett, 1994. Pp. 175-181.
- 31. Carrol, C. R. Drugs in Modern Society. Boston, Massachusetts: McGraw-Hill, 2000, p. 77. Because standard drinks are equivalent in alcohol content, it is misleading to refer to spirits as "hard liquor," which implies that drinking distilled spirits leads more quickly or easily to intoxication than other alcohol beverages.
- 34. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). 2010 Motor Vehicle Crashes: Overview. Traffic Safety Facts: Research Note. 2011 (December). DOT HS 811 552. Page 2, Table 3.
- 35. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. 2006 Traffic Safety Annual Assessment: Alcohol-Related Fatalities. Traffic Safety Facts: Research Note. 2007. DOT HS 810 821. Page 1, Figure 1.
- 36. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). 2010 Motor Vehicle Crashes: Overview. Traffic Safety Facts: Research Note. 2011 (December). DOT HS 811 552. Page 2, Table 3; National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). Traffic Fatalities in 2010 Drop to Lowest Rate in Recorded History. NHTSA Press Release. April 1, 2011.
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