Drinking Alcohol and Scrotal Cancer Risk
Drinking alcohol (wine, beer and distilled spirits) does not increase the risk of developing scrotal cancer.
Risk factors for scrotal cancer include:
- Race. White men are more likely to develop scrotal cancer than are African-American men
- Exposure to long-wave ultraviolet radiation (UVA), which is commonly used to treat psoriasis.
- Occupation. Workers in the chimney sweep, parafin, shale oil, cotton spinning, machine operation, petroleum wax pressing, screw-making, and automatic lathe operating industries or are more likely to develop scrotal cancer.
The incidence of scrotal cancer has doubled over the past 30 years. Men should be alert to any sore on the scrotum, especially if it ulcerates or opens, and see a doctor. Most lumps on the scrotum are harmless, but any sore should be taken seriously.
Consuming alcohol isn't a risk factor for scrotal cancer. However, drinking alcohol regularly and in moderation is associated with better health and longer life than is either abstaining from alcohol or drinking abusively.
Drinking in moderation has been described by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) as a man consuming four drinks on any day and an average of 14 drinks per week.
A standard alcoholic drink is:
- A 12-ounce can or bottle of regular beer
- A 5-ounce glass of dinner wine
- A shot (one and one-half ounces) of 80 proof liquor or spirits such as vodka, tequila, or rum either straight or in a mixed drink.
Standard drinks contain equivalent amounts of alcohol. To a breathalyzer, they're all the same.
There is no evidence that any particular form of alcoholic beverage (beer, wine, or distilled spirits) confers greater health benefits than any other.
Note: This website does not make health or medical recommendations regarding drinking alcohol and scrotal cancer and none should be inferred.
Readings on Scrotal Cancer:
- Arai, Y., et al. A case of scrotal cancer with inguinal lymph node metastasis treated by multidisciplinary modalities including chemotherapy with methotrexate, bleomycin and cisplatin. Hinyokika Kiyo., 1997, 43(9), 683-5.
- Arango, O., et al. Hemiscrotectomy with contralateral testicular translocation for scrotal cancer. Journal of Urology, 2002, 4 1406-1407.
- Avellan, L., et al. Carcinomas of scrotum induced by mineral oil. Journal of Plastic Surgery and Hand Surgery, 1967, 1(2), 135-140.
- Brown, A.J., et al. Report on a Study of Occupational Skin Cancer with Special Reference to Scrotal Cancer. Birmingham, England: University of Birmingham, 1975.
- Burmer, G.C., et al. Squamous cell carcinoma of the scrotum associated with human papillomaviruses. Journal of Urology, 1993, 147, 374-384.
- Coggon, D., et al. Mortality from scrotal cancer in metal machinists in England and Wales, 1979-80 and 1982-90. Occupational Medicine, 1996, 46(1), 69-70.
- Crawford, E.D., and Das, S. Penile, Urethral, and Scrotal Cancer. Philadelphia, PA.: W.B. Saunders, 1992.
- Daar, A.S., and Ormiston, M.C. Scrotal cancer: a notifiable occupational disease. British Journal of Clinical Practice, 1981, 35(7-8), 281-282.
- Grossman, H.B. Premalignant and early carcinomas of the penis and scrotum. The Urologic Clinics of North America, 1992, 19(2), 221-226.
- Haggerty, B.J. Prevention and differentiation of scrotal cancer. The Nurse Practitioner, 1983, 8(10): 45, 48, 50 passim.
- Harish, K. Urethral carcinoma mimicking scrotal cancer. Journal of the Indian Medical Association, 2009, 107(2), 108.
- Iiyama, T., and Watanabe, H. Scrotal metastasis from ureteral cancer. Journal of Urology, 2001, 165(5), 1637.
- Lee, W.R. Occupational aspects of scrotal cancer and epithelioma. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1976, 271, 138-142.
- Lowe, F.C. Squamous-cell carcinoma of the scrotum:.Urologic Clinics of North America, 1992, 19(2), 397-405.
- McDonald, M.W., et al. Carcinoma of the scrotum. Urology, 1982, 19, 269-274.
- Muglia, V., et al. Magnetic resonance imaging of scrotal diseases: when it makes the difference. Adult Urology. 2002, 59, 419-423.
- Onur M.R., et al. Scrotal ultrasonography. Andrologia, 2008, 40(1), 58-61.
- Orihuela, E., et al. Development of human papillomavirus type 16 associated squamous cell carcinoma of the scrotum in a patient with Darier's disease treated with systemic isotretinoin. Journal of Urology, 1995, 153(6),1940-1943.
- Ozen, H., et al. Significance of scrotal violation in the prognosis of patients with testicular tumours. British Journal of Urology, 1988, 62(3), 267-270.
- Robertson, J. Spinners Scrotal Cancer. M.D. dissertation. Glasgow University, 1926.
- Roush, G.C., et al. Secular age distribution of scrotal cancer in Connecticut and a review of United States literature. Cancer, 1984, 54(3), 596-601.
- Roush, G.C., et al. A population-based study of survival after scrotal carcinoma. Cancer, 1985, 55(3), 666-671.
- Schwaab, T., and Nangia, A.K. Scrotal cancer. New England Journal of Medicine, 2005, 352(19), 2002.
- Takahashi, Y., et al. [Piaget's disease of the scrotum]. Acta Urologica Japonica, 1988, 34(6), 1069-1072.
- Taniguchi, S, et al. Squamous cell carcinoma of the scrotum. Dermatology, 1996, 193, 253-254.
- Tucci P., and Haraiambidis G. Carcinoma of the scrotum: review of literature and presentation of 2 cases. Journal of Urology, 1963, 89, 585.
- Wahlberg, J.E. Occupational and non-occupational scrotal cancer in Sweden, 1958-1970. Acta Dermato-venereologica, 1974, 54(6), 471-474.
- Waldron, H.A. Scrotal cancer continues. British Medical Journal, 1972, 4(5834), 236.
- Waldron, H.A. On the history of scrotal cancer. Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England, 1983, 65(6), 420-422.
- Waldron, H.A. A brief history of scrotal cancer. British Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1983, 40(4), 390-401.
- Waldron; H.A., et al. Scrotal cancer in the West Midlands 1936-1976. British Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1984(4), 437-444.
- Wright, J.L., et al. Primary scrotal cancer: disease characteristics and increasing incidence. Urology, 2008, 72(5),1139.
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