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References

1. Commission on Substance Abuse at Colleges and Universities. Rethinking Rites of Passage: Substance Abuse on American Campuses. New York: Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, 1994. (Note: see footnote #2)

2. McNamara-Meis, Kathy. Burned. Forbes MediaCritic, 1995, 20-24. After reporter Kathy McNamara-Meis investigated, she concluded that the "news" that 60% of college women who contracted a sexually transmitted disease did so while under the influence of alcohol "appears to have been pulled from thin air" (p. 21). What about the assertion that 90% of all campus rapes occur when alcohol is being used? CASA "couldn't remember" the source of the statistic, and after exhaustively searching the published research on rape, McNamara-Meis was forced to conclude that "there is none" (p. 22). And the three-fold increase in college women drinking to get drunk from 1977 to 1993? It was a most dubious figure, inconsistent with all nation-wide studies conducted over that time period and was based on an inadequate survey limited to a few colleges in only one state. While the CASA report presented this highly suspect statistic as fact, it failed to mention that the study also found stability in the proportion of frequent heavy drinkers and an 11 percent increase in abstainers! But those findings were not consistent with their doomsday scenario. The assertion that 95% of violent crime on campus is alcohol-related is also highly suspect. It is based on an estimate that 95% of such campus crimes are alcohol or drug-related. But the CASA report disingenuously presented it as a fact referring only to alcohol (p. 23).

3. Hanson, David J. Alcohol Education: What We Must Do. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger, 1996, pp. 114-115.

4. Baker, Falcon. Toward a Winnable War on Drugs. In: Goldberg, Raymond (ed.) Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Issues in Drugs and Society. Guilford, Connecticut: Dushkin Publishing, 1993. Pp. 212-216, p. 215; Horton, Lowell. Developing Effective Drug Education Programs. Bloomington, Indiana: Phi Kappa Educational Foundation, 1992, p. 23.

5. Haines, Michael P. A Social Norms Approach to Preventing Binge Drinking at Colleges and Universities. Newton, Massachusetts: Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention, 1996, pp. 12-13.

6. Engs, Ruth C., Hanson, David J., and Diebold, Beth A. The drinking patterns and problems of a national sample of college students, 1994. Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 1996, 42 (3), 13-33, and unpublished data collected by those researchers.

7. Hanson, D. J., and Engs, R. C. Series of published reports of nation-wide studies of collegiate alcohol use and abuse.

8. Presley, C. A., Meilman, P., and Lylerla, R. Alcohol and Drugs on American Campuses: Use, Consequences, and Perceptions of the College Environment. Vol. I: 1989-1991. Carbondale, Il: The CORE Institute, 1993; Presley, C. A., Leichliter, J. S., and Meilman, P. W. Alcohol and Drugs on American Campuses: A Report to College Presidents. Third in a Series: 1995, 1996, and 1997. Carbondale, Illinois: The CORE Institute, 1998.

9. Wechsler, H., Dowdall, G. W., Maenner, G. Gledhill-Hoyt, and Lee, H. Changes in binge drinking and related problems among American college students between 1993 and 1997: Results of the Harvard Schoold of Public Health College Alcohol Survey. Journal of American College Health, 1998, 47, 57-68.

10. Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, 1999 (www.isr.umich/src/mtf).

11. Astin, A. W., Parrott, S. A., Korn, W. S., and Sax, L. J. The American Freshman:Thirty Year trends, 1966-1996. Los Angeles, CA: University of California, Higher Education Research Institute, 1997, p. 21.

12. Wechsler, H., Dowdall, G. W., Maener, G., Gledhill-Hoyt, and Lee, H. Changes in binge drinking and related problems among American college students between 1993 and 1997: Results of the Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Survey. Journal of American College Health, 1998, 47, 57-68.

13. Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, 1999 (www.isr.umich/src/mtf).

14. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. The 1998 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. Washington, D.C.: SAMHSA, 1999, Table 14. Available at www.samhsa.gov.

15. PRIDE Survey. News from PRIDE Surveys, Sept. 8, 1999 (press release).

16. Johnson, L. D., O'Malley, P. M., and Bachman, J. G. National Survey Results on Drug Use from The Monitoring The Future Study, 1975-1997. Washington, D.C.: National Institute on Drug Abuse, Vol.I:Secondary School Students, 1998; National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (www.nhtsa.dot.gov).

17. Perkins, H. Wesley. Confronting Misperceptions of Peer Drug Use Norms Among College Students: An Alternative Approach for Alcohol and Drug Education. In: Peer Prevention Program Implementation Manual. Fort Worth, TX: Texas Christian University, Higher Education Leaders/Peers Network, 1991.

18. Berkowitz, A. D. Following Imaginary Peers: How Norm Misperceptions Influence Student Substance Abuse. Lindsay, G., and Rulf, G. (eds.) Project Direction Module No. 2. Muncie, IN: Ball State University, 1991; Hansen, W. B., Raynor, A. E., and Wolkenstein, B. H. Perceived personal immunity to the consequences of drinking alcohol: The relationship between behavior and perception. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 1991, 14 (3), 205-224.

19. Graham, J. W., Marks, G., and Hansen, W. B. Social influence processes affecting adolescent substance use. Journal of Applied Psychology, 1991, 76(2); Prentice, D. A., and Miller, D. T. Pluralistic ignorance and alcohol use on campus: Some consequences of misperceiving the social norm. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1993, 64(2), p. 243; Gruenewald, P. An empirical examination of the assumptions underlying youth drinking/driving prevention programs. Eval. Prog. Plan, 1988, 11 (3), 219-235; Vegega, M. E., and Klitzner, M. Drinking and driving among youth. Health Education Quarterly, 1989, 16 (3), 373-338.

20. Perkins, H. Wesley. Scope of the problem: Misperceptions of alcohol and drugs. Catalyst, 1996, 1(3).

21. Hansen, William B, and Graham, J. W. Preventing alcohol, marijuana, and cigarette use among adolescents: Peer pressure resistance training versus establishing conservative norms. Preventive Medicine, 1991, 20; Haines, Michael P. A Social Norms Approach to Preventing Binge Drinking at Colleges and Universities. Newton, MA: Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drugs Prevention, 1996.

22. Haines, Michael P. A Social Norms Approach to Preventing Binge Drinking at Colleges and Universities. Newton, MA: Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention, p. 4.

23. Guthrie, R. S. Abstinence and Alcohol Use Among Senior Students Enrolled in Seventh-Day Adventist Academies. Unpublished M.S. thesis, University of Wisconsin - LaCrosse, 1986, pp. 11 and 79; Hanson, David J. Preventing Alcohol Abuse: Alcohol, Culture, and Control. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1995, pp. 45-50.

24. Ibid., passim.

25. Washington State Substance Abuse Coalition. Untitled poster. Bellevue, WA: Washington State Substance Abuse Coalition, n.d.

26. New York State Division of Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse. Alcohol: The Gateway Drug. Albany, NY: New York State Division of Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse, n.d., p. 77.

27. New York State Division of Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse. Don't be fooled. (Poster) Albany, NY: New York State Division of Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse, n.d.

28. Facing Alcohol Concerns through Education. It's Only Beer (poster). Clare, MI: Facing Alcohol Concerns through Education, 1993.

29. Hanson, David J. Alcohol Education: What We Must Do. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1996.

Readings (Listing does not imply endorsement)

Astin, Alexander W., Parrott, S. A., Korn, W. S., and Sax, L. J. The American Freshman: Thirty Year Trends, 1966-1996. Los Angeles, CA: University of California, Higher Education Research Institute, 1997.

Baer, J. S., and Carney, M. M. Biases in the perceptions of the consequences of alcohol use among college students. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 1993, 54, 54-60.

Baer, J. S., Stacy, A., and Larimer, M. Biases in the perception of drinking norms among college students. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 1991, 52, 580-586.

Berkowitz, Alan D., and Perkins, H. Wesley. Current Issues in Effective Alcohol Education. In: Sherwood, Joan Sargent (ed.) Alcohol Policies and Practices on College and University Campuses. Washington, DC: National Association of Student Personnel Administrators, 1987.

Bohlmann, B. J., et al. Binge drinking in college. Journal of the American Medical Association, 1995, 273(24), 1903.

Bruffee, Kenneth A. Binge drinking as a substitute for a "community of learning." The Chronicle of Higher Education, Feb. 5, 1999, 45(22), p. B8(1).

Chauncey, Robert L. New careers for moral entrepreneurs: Teenage drinking. Journal of Drug Issues, 1980, 45-70.

Cisin, Ira H. Formal and Informal Social Control over Drinking. In: Ewing, John A. and Rouse, Beatrice A. (eds.) Drinking: Alcohol in American Society - Issues and Current Research. Chicago, IL: Nelson-Hall, 1978. pp. 145-158.

Colón, Israel. The alcohol beverage purchase age and single-vehicle highway fatalities. Journal of Safety Research, 1984, 15, 159-162.

Commission on Substance Abuse at Colleges and Universities. Rethinking Rites of Passage: Substance Abuse on American Campuses. New York: Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, 1994. (Note: An investigative reporter has documented that material in this report is unsubstantiated, of highly questionable accuracy, or misleading.)

Davis, James E. Alcohol use among college students: Responses to raising the purchase age. Journal of American College Health, 1990, 38, 263.

Davey, J. D. Determinants of binge drinking and alcohol use by young Australian women. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 1997, 10(2), 7.

Department of Health and Human Services. Youth and Alcohol: Laws and Enforcement - Is the 21-Year-Old Drinking Age a Myth? Washington, DC: Department of Health and Human Services, 1991, p. 5.

Dowdall, George, and Crawford, M. Binge Drinking among American college women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 1998, 22(4), 705.

Duncan, D. F. Chronic drinking, binge drinking, and drunk driving. Psychological Reports, 1997, 80(2), 681.

Engs, Ruth C., and Hanson, David J. Age-specific alcohol prohibition and college students' drinking problems. Psychological Reports, 1986, 59, 979-984.

Engs, Ruth C., and Hanson, David J. University students' drinking patterns and problems: Examining the effects of raising the purchase age. Public Health Reports, 1988, 103, 557-573.

Engs, Ruth C., and Hanson, David J. Reactance theory: A test with collegiate drinking. Psychological Reports, 1989, 64, 1083-108.

Engs, Ruth C., and Hanson, David J. Drinking games and problems related to drinking among moderate and heavy drinkers. Psychological Reports, 1993, 73, 115-120.

Engs, Ruth C., and Hanson, David J. Boozing and brawling on campus: A national study of problems associated with drinking over the past decade. Journal of Criminal Justice, 1994, 22, 171-180.

Engs, Ruth C., Hanson, David J., and Diebold, Beth A. The drinking patterns and problems of a national sample of college students, 1994. Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 1996, 42(3), 13-33.

Fillmore, Kaye M., and Wittman, F. D. The effects of alcohol availability on college student drinking: A trend study. Contemporary Drug Problems, 1982, 11, 455-492.

Globetti, Gerald. Prohibition Norms and Teenage Drinking. In: Ewing, J. A., and Rouse, Beatrice A. (eds.) Drinking Alcohol in American Society - Issues and Current Research. Chicago: Nelson-Hall, Inc., 1978. pp. 159-170.

Haines, Michael P. A Social Norms Approach to Preventing Binge Drinking at Colleges and Universities. Newton, MA: Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention, 1996. (This very important and useful book is available free by calling 1-800-676-1730.)

Haines, Michael P., and Spear, A. F. Changing the perceptions of the norm: A strategy to decrease binge drinking among college students. Journal of American College Health, 1996, 45, 134-140.

Hanson, David J. Drug Education Programs. In: The International Encyclopedia of Curriculum. Oxford, England: Pergamon, second ed., 1991.

Hanson, David J. Alcohol, Drug and Smoking Education Programs. In: The International Encyclopedia of Education. Oxford, England: Pergamon, second ed., 1994.

Hanson, David J. Preventing Alcohol Abuse: Alcohol, Culture, and Control. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1995.

Hanson, David J. Effectiveness of specific public policies on substance abuse prevention. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 1996, 9, 235-238.

Hanson, David J. Alcohol Education: What We Must Do. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1996.

Hanson, David J. Drug Prevention Education. In: The Encyclopedia of Education and Encyclopedia of Higher Education on CD-ROM. Oxford, England: Pergamon, 1997.

Hanson, David J., and Engs, Ruth C. The alcohol knowledge and drinking myths of a national sample of university students. Journal of College Student Development, 1989.

Hanson, David J., and Engs, Ruth C. Black College Students' Drinking Patterns. In: Forster, Brenda, and Salloway, Jeff (eds.) The Socio-Cultural Matiix of Alcohol and Drug Abuse. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 1990.

Hanson, David J., and Engs, Ruth C. College students' drinking problems: A national study, 1982-1991. Psychological Reports, 1992, 71, 39-42.

Hanson, David J., and Engs, Ruth C. Drinking Behavior: Taking Personal Responsibility. In: Venturelli, Peter J. (Ed.) Drug Use in America: Social, Cultural, and Political Perspectives. Boston, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 1994, pp. 175-181.

Heath, Dwight B. The new temperance movement: Through the looking glass. Drugs & Society, 1989, 3, 143-168.

Hingson, Ralph, Merrigan, Daniel, and Heeren, Timothy. Effects of Massachusetts raising its legal drinking age from 18 to 20 on deaths from teenage homicide, suicide and nontraffic accidents. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 1985, 32, 221-233.

Johnston, Lloyd D, O'Malley, P. M., and Bachman, J. G. National Survey Results on Drug Use from The Monitoring The Future Study, 1975-1997. Washington, DC: National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1998.

Kauhanen, J., et al. Beer bingeing and mortality. British Medical Journal, 1997, 315(7112), 846-847.

Linsky, Arnold S., Colby, Jr., John P., and Straus, Murray A. Drinking norms and alcohol-related problems in the United States. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 1986 , 47, 384-393.

Lolli, Giorgio, Serianni, Emidio, Golder, Grace M., and Luzzatto-Fegiz, Pierpeolo. Alcohol in Italian Culture: Food and Wine in Relation to Sobriety among Italians and Italian Americans. Glencoe, IL: Free Press, 1958.

Lotterhos, J. F., Glover, E. D., Holbert, D., and Barnes, R. C. Intentionality of college students regarding North Carolina's 21-year drinking age law. International Journal of the Addictions, 1988, 23, 629-647.

Marlatt, G. Alan. Alcohol, expectancy, and emotional states: How drinking patterns may be affected by beliefs about alcohol's effects. Alcohol Health and Research World, 1987, 11, 10-13, 80-81.

Meilman, P. W., et al. Black college students and binge drinking. Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 1994, 4, 70-71.

Milgram, Gail G. The Facts about Drinking. Mount Vernon, NY: Consumers Union, 1990.

Mosher, James F. The History of Youthful Drinking Laws: Implications for Current Policy. In: Wechsler, Henry (ed.) Minimum Drinking Age Laws. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1980. pp. 11-38.

Moskowitz, Joel M. The primary prevention of alcohol problems: A critical review of the research literature. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 1989, 50, 54-88.

Mulford, Harold A. The Epidemiology of Alcoholism and Its Implications. In: Pattison, E. Mansell and Kaufman, Edward (ed.) Encyclopedic Handbook of Alcoholism. New York: Gardner Press, 1982. pp. 441-457.

Murgoff, , V., White, D., and Phillips, K. Moderating binge drinking. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 1996, 31(6), 577.

Naughton, Jim. Alcohol abuse by athletes poses big problem for colleges: Some educators say that sports programs are a "center of binge drinking." The Chronicle of Higher Education, 1996, 43(4), A47(2).

New York State Division of Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse. Alcohol: The Gateway Drug. Albany, NY: New York State Division of Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse, no date.

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O'Malley, Patrick M., Johnston, L. D., and Bachman, J. G. Alcohol use among adolescents. Alcohol Health & Research World, 1998, 22(2), 85-93.

Perkins, H. Wesley and Berkowitz, Alan D. Stability and contradiction in college students' drinking following a drinking-age law change. Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 1989, 35, 60-77.

Perkins, H. Wesley. Confronting Misperceptions of Peer Drug Use Norms Among College Students: An Alternative Approach for Alcohol and Drug Education. In: Peer Prevention Program Implementation Manual. Fort Worth, TX: Texas Christian University, Higher Education Leaders/Peers Network, 1991.

Pittman, David J. The New Temperance Movement. In: Pittman, David J. and White, Helene R. (ed.) Society, Culture, and Drinking Patterns Reexamined. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers Center of Alcohol Studies, 1991. pp. 775-790.

Presley, C. A., Meilman, P. W., Cashin, J. R., and Lyeria, R. Alcohol and Drugs on American College Campuses: Use, Consequences, and Perceptions of the Campus Environment, Vol. IV: 1992-94. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University, 1996.

Robin, R. W., Long, J. C., Rasmussen, J. K., Albaugh, B., and Goldman, D. Relationship of binge drinking to alcohol dependence, other psychiatric disorders, and behavioral prombems in an American Indian Tribe. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 1998, 22(2), 518.

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Wechsler, Henry, Kuh, G., and Davenport, A. E. Fraternities, sororities, and binge drinking. NASPA Journal, 1996, 33(4), 260.

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Wiener, Carolyn. The Politics of Alcoholism. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books, 1981.

Williams, Frank G., Kirkman-Liff, Bradford L., and Szivek, Pamela H. College student drinking behaviors before and after changes in state policy. Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 1990, 35, 12-25.

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