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References:

  • 1. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). Performance Measures. NHTSA Budget Overview FY 2007. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2007. (nhtsa.dot.gov//nhtsa/whatis/bb/207/pages/NHTSAPerfMeas.htm+BAC+crashes&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=l&gl=us)
  • 2. Testimony of  Richard F. Healing, Member, National Transportation Safety Board before the House Judiciary Committee State of Maryland Regarding House Bill 763. February 12, 2004. (ntsb.gov/Speeches/healing/rfh040212.htm+high+BAC+drivers&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=4&gl=us)
  • 3. Hedlund, James and James Fell. Repeat Offenders and Persistent Drinking Drivers in the U.S.. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2007
  • 4. Hughes, Kim. DWI court aims to change lives; People admitting alcohol addiction can take part in county program. Houston Chronicle, March 29, 2007; National Drug Court Institute. DWI Courts and DWI/Drug Courts: Reducing Recidivism , Saving Lives (ndci.org); National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Guiding Principles for DWI Courts. (nhtsa.dot.gov)
  • 5. Ludbrook, A., et al. Effective and Cost-Effective Measures to Reduce Alcohol Misuse in Scotland: A Literature Review. Edinburgh, Scotland: Department of Scottish Ministries. 9scotland.gov.uk/health/alcohol problems/docs/lire=00.asp)
  • 6. Ludbrook, A., et al. Effective and Cost-Effective Measures to Reduce Alcohol Misuse in Scotland: A Literature Review. Edinburgh, Scotland: Department of Scottish Ministries. 9scotland.gov.uk/health/alcohol problems/docs/lire=00.asp)
  • 7. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). Laws: Vehicle and License Plate Sanctions. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2004.
  • 8. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). Laws: Vehicle and License Plate Sanctions. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2004. 
  • 9. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). Laws: Vehicle and License Plate Sanctions. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2004.
  • 10. Mosher, James, et al.State laws mandating or promoting training programs for alcohol servers and establishments: An  assessment of statutory and administrative procedures.  Journal of Public Health Policy,  2001, 23(1), 91-113; Saltz, R. Server Intervention and Responsible Beverage Service Programs. In: Office of the Surgeon General. Surgeon General's Workshop on Drunk Driving: Background Papers. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1989. Pp. 169-179; Russ, N., and Geller, E. S. Training bar personnel to prevent drunken driving: A field evaluation. American Journal of Public Health, 1987, 77, 952-954; McKnight, A. J. Development and Field Test of a Responsible Alcohol Service Program. Vol. 3, Final Results. Technical report. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 1988; Holder, H. & Wagenaar, A.  Mandated Server Training and Reduced Alcohol-Involved Traffic crashes: A time series analysis of the Oregon experience. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 1994, 26(1), 89-97.
  • 11. Hellstrom, David. "Reducing Risk: The Prevention Collaborative's Positive Social Norming Campaign." Conference presentation at the National Conference on the Social Norms Model, July 17, 2003, Boston, MA; Collaboration and social norms: The key to reducing impaired driving among college students in Minneapolis/St. Paul. The Peer Educator, October 2002, Vol. 25, No.3; National Social Norms Resource Center. Minnesota DWI Prevention: The Prevention Collaborative (socialnorm.org/CaseStudies/minnesotadwi.php+%22social+norms%22+DWI&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=1&gl=us).
  • 12. Walsh, J. M., et al. Epidemiology of alcohol and other drug use among motor vehicle crash victims admitted to a trauma center. Traffic Injury Prevention, 2004, 5(3), 254-260.
  • 13. Addiction Research Foundation. Alcohol, other drugs and driving. The Journal, 1992.
  • 14. Drummer, O. H., et al. The incidence of drugs in drivers killed in Australian road traffic crashes. Forensic Science International, 2003, 134, 154-162.
  • 15. National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) website (drug abuse.gov/DrugPages/mtf.html). Monitoring the Future is funded by NIDA and conducted periodically by the University of Michigan’s Institute for Social Research. Findings reported are from the survey conducted in 2004.
  • 16. Maryland State Department of Education. Maryland Adolescent Survey, 2002.(msde.state.md.us/PDF_files/Final%202002%20MAS%Report.PDF)
  • 17. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). Laws: Vehicle and License Plate Sanctions. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2004.
  • 18. Stuster, J., et al. Open Container Laws and Alcohol Involved Crashes, Washington, DC: Department of Transportation, 2002. DOT HS 809 426. (nhtsa.dot.gov/people/injury/research/OpenContainer/tech_doc_page.htm)
  • 19. The Hard Core Drinking Driver: Prevention Programs. Ottawa: Canada Safety Council, n.d.
  • 20. Preusser, D., Williams, A., and Zador, P. The effect of curfew laws on motor vehicle crashes. Law and Policy, 1984, 6, 115-128.
  • 21. Jones, R. K., et al. Evaluation of Alternative Programs for Repeat DWI Offenders. Washington, DC: NHISA, 1996. DOT HS 808 493; Jones, R.K., Lacey, J.H., Berning, A. and Fell, J.C. An assessment of alternative sanctions for DWI offenders. In: C. Mercier-Guyon (ed), Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety – T’97, 1997, 1, 63-72. Annecy, France: CERMT; Baumer, T.L., and Mendelsohn, R.I.  Electronically Monitored Home
    Confinement: Does It Work? In: J. Petersilia, A.J. Lurigio and J.M. Byrne
    (eds.), Smart Sentencing. The Emergence of Intermediate Sanctions. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 1995, (pp. 54-67).
  • 22. Compton, R. Preliminary analysis of the effect of Tennessee's
    mandatory jail sanction on DWI recidivism. Research Notes. 1986 (June)
    Washington, D.C.: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration; Homel, R. Policing and Punishing the Drinking Driver: A Study of General and Specific Deterrence. NY: Springer Verlag, 1988; Joksch, H.C. The Impact of Severe Penalties on Drinking and Driving. Washington, D.C.: AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety, 1988; Ross, H.L., and Klette, H. (1995). Abandonment of mandatory jail for impaired drivers in Norway and Sweden. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 1995, 27(2),151-157.
  • 23. Royal D. National Survey of Drinking and Driving Attitudes and Behavior: 1999. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Washington, DC, 2000. DOT HS 809 190; Ross. H. L. Confronting Drunk Driving: Social Policy for Saving Lives. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1992, p. 8; National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Traffic Safety Facts 1998 – Alcohol. Washington, D.C., U.S. Department of Transportation, NHTSA, 1999. DOT HS 808 950
  • 24. Lawpoolski, S., et al. Speeding Tickets: Effective Deterrents for  Future Violations or Not? Apaer presented at TRB annual meeting, 2006. (mdt.mt.gov/research/docs/trb_cd/Files/06-1871.pdf+fines+effectiveness+DUI&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=9&gl=us).
  • 25. Hanson, David J. Preventing Alcohol Problems: Alcohol, Culture and Control. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1995.
  • 26. century council.org
  • 27. Ross. H. L. Confronting Drunk Driving: Social Policy for Saving Lives. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1992, p.  6; Simpson, H. M., and Mayhew, D. R. The Hard Core Drinking Driver. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: Traffic Injury Research Foundation, 1991, p. 46.
  • 28. Drowsy driving is greatly underreported because there is no test for it, as there is for intoxication, no clear way to identify it, and many states don't even have a code for it on their vehicle accident reporting forms. The U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) estimates that about 100,000 police-reported crashes annually involve drowsiness/fatigue as a principal cause. It estimates that these crashes cause $12.5 billion in monetary losses each year. Sleepiness and fatigue also play a role in crashes attributed to other causes. About 1,000,000 crashes annually -- one-sixth of all crashes -- are thought to be caused by driver inattention and lapses. Sleep deprivation and fatigue make such lapses of attention more likely to occur. In a 1999 National Science Foundation poll, 62% of all adults surveyed in the U.S. reported driving a car or other vehicle while they were drowsy during the previous year. Twenty-seven percent reported that they had, at some time, fallen asleep while driving. People are more likely to fall asleep on high-speed, long, boring, rural highways. The New York State Police estimates that 30% of all fatal accidents on the New York State Thruway occur because drivers fall asleep at the wheel. Studies suggest truck driver fatigue may contribute to at least 30 to 40% of all heavy truck accidents. (Facts about Drowsy Driving The Peer Educator, 2000, 23(4), 9 &14) To learn more visit dui.com/whatsnew/sleep.html.
  • 29. Insurance Information Center. Cell Phones and Driving.  2007. (iii.org/media/hottopics/insurance/cellphones/) ; Recarte, M. A. & Nunes, L. M. (2003). Mental Workload While Driving: Effects on Visual Search, Discrimination, and Decision Making. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 2003, 2(9), 119-137; Strayer, D. L., Drews, F. A. & Johnston W. A. (2003). Cell Phone-Induced Failures of Visual Attention During Simulated Driving. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 2003, 1(9), 23-32; Strayer, D. L. & William J. A. (2001). Driven to distraction: Dual-Task Studies of Simulated Driving and Conversing on a Cellular Telephone. Psychological Science, 2001, 6(12), 462-466; Sundeem, M. Cell Phones and Highway Safety: 2002 State Legislatures Update. Denver, CO: National Council of State Legislatures, 2003.
  • 30. Adapted from Hanson, D. J., and Engs, R. C. Drinking Behavior: Taking Personal Responsibility. In: Venturelli, P. J. (ed.) Drug Use in America: Social, Cultural, and Political Perspectives. Boston, Massachusetts: Jones and Bartlett, 1994. Pp. 175-181.
  • 31. Carrol, C. R. Drugs in Modern Society. Boston, Massachusetts: McGraw-Hill, 2000, p. 77. Because standard drinks are equivalent in alcohol content, it is misleading to refer to spirits as "hard liquor," which implies that drinking distilled spirits leads more quickly or easily to intoxication than other alcohol beverages.
  • 34. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). 2010 Motor Vehicle Crashes: Overview. Traffic Safety Facts: Research Note. 2011 (December). DOT HS 811 552. Page 2, Table 3.
  • 35. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. 2006 Traffic Safety Annual Assessment: Alcohol-Related Fatalities. Traffic Safety Facts: Research Note. 2007. DOT HS 810 821. Page 1, Figure 1.
  • 36. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). 2010 Motor Vehicle Crashes: Overview. Traffic Safety Facts: Research Note. 2011 (December). DOT HS 811 552. Page 2, Table 3; National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). Traffic Fatalities in 2010 Drop to Lowest Rate in Recorded History. NHTSA Press Release. April 1, 2011.

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