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- 2. Testimony of Richard F. Healing, Member, National Transportation Safety Board before the House Judiciary Committee State of Maryland Regarding House Bill 763. February 12, 2004. (ntsb.gov/Speeches/healing/rfh040212.htm+high+BAC+drivers&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=4&gl=us)
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mandatory jail sanction on DWI recidivism. Research Notes. 1986 (June)
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- 28. Drowsy driving is greatly underreported because there is no test for it, as there is for intoxication, no clear way to identify it, and many states don't even have a code for it on their vehicle accident reporting forms. The U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) estimates that about 100,000 police-reported crashes annually involve drowsiness/fatigue as a principal cause. It estimates that these crashes cause $12.5 billion in monetary losses each year. Sleepiness and fatigue also play a role in crashes attributed to other causes. About 1,000,000 crashes annually -- one-sixth of all crashes -- are thought to be caused by driver inattention and lapses. Sleep deprivation and fatigue make such lapses of attention more likely to occur. In a 1999 National Science Foundation poll, 62% of all adults surveyed in the U.S. reported driving a car or other vehicle while they were drowsy during the previous year. Twenty-seven percent reported that they had, at some time, fallen asleep while driving. People are more likely to fall asleep on high-speed, long, boring, rural highways. The New York State Police estimates that 30% of all fatal accidents on the New York State Thruway occur because drivers fall asleep at the wheel. Studies suggest truck driver fatigue may contribute to at least 30 to 40% of all heavy truck accidents. (Facts about Drowsy Driving The Peer Educator, 2000, 23(4), 9 &14) To learn more visit dui.com/whatsnew/sleep.html.
- 29. Insurance Information Center. Cell Phones and Driving. 2007. (iii.org/media/hottopics/insurance/cellphones/) ; Recarte, M. A. & Nunes, L. M. (2003). Mental Workload While Driving: Effects on Visual Search, Discrimination, and Decision Making. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 2003, 2(9), 119-137; Strayer, D. L., Drews, F. A. & Johnston W. A. (2003). Cell Phone-Induced Failures of Visual Attention During Simulated Driving. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 2003, 1(9), 23-32; Strayer, D. L. & William J. A. (2001). Driven to distraction: Dual-Task Studies of Simulated Driving and Conversing on a Cellular Telephone. Psychological Science, 2001, 6(12), 462-466; Sundeem, M. Cell Phones and Highway Safety: 2002 State Legislatures Update. Denver, CO: National Council of State Legislatures, 2003.
- 30. Adapted from Hanson, D. J., and Engs, R. C. Drinking Behavior: Taking Personal Responsibility. In: Venturelli, P. J. (ed.) Drug Use in America: Social, Cultural, and Political Perspectives. Boston, Massachusetts: Jones and Bartlett, 1994. Pp. 175-181.
- 31. Carrol, C. R. Drugs in Modern Society. Boston, Massachusetts: McGraw-Hill, 2000, p. 77. Because standard drinks are equivalent in alcohol content, it is misleading to refer to spirits as "hard liquor," which implies that drinking distilled spirits leads more quickly or easily to intoxication than other alcohol beverages.
- 34. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). 2010 Motor Vehicle Crashes: Overview. Traffic Safety Facts: Research Note. 2011 (December). DOT HS 811 552. Page 2, Table 3.
- 35. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. 2006 Traffic Safety Annual Assessment: Alcohol-Related Fatalities. Traffic Safety Facts: Research Note. 2007. DOT HS 810 821. Page 1, Figure 1.
- 36. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). 2010 Motor Vehicle Crashes: Overview. Traffic Safety Facts: Research Note. 2011 (December). DOT HS 811 552. Page 2, Table 3; National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). Traffic Fatalities in 2010 Drop to Lowest Rate in Recorded History. NHTSA Press Release. April 1, 2011.
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