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References

1. The alcohol education approach overwhelmingly used in the US, that of promoting abstinence, has proven to be ineffective and sometimes counterproductive. For example, Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE) has been found totally ineffective by virtually all research. (However, DARE remains very popular with students, teachers, parents, school boards and the public!) Alcohol education that promotes moderation is demonstrably more effective, according to the research evidence (Hanson, D. J. Alcohol Education: What We Must Do. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger, 1996).

2. Lender, M., and Martin, J. K. Drinking in America. New York: Free Press, 1982; Mendelson, J. H., and Mello, N. K. Alcohol Use and Abuse in America. Boston, Massachusetts: Little, Brown, 1985; Royce, J. E. Alcohol Problems: A Comprehensive Survey. New York,: Free Press, 1981.

3. Heath, D. B. (Ed.) International Handbook on Alcohol and Culture. London, England: Greenwood, 1998; Peele, S., and Brodsky, A. Alcohol and Society: How Culture Influences the Way People Drink. San Francisco: Wine Institute, 1996; Hanson, D. J. Preventing Alcohol Abuse: Alcohol, Culture and Control. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger, 1995.

4. Hanson, D. J. Preventing Alcohol Abuse: Alcohol, Culture and Control. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger, 1995.

5. Roper Youth Report, August, 1996.

6. McCaffrey, Barry R. Parenting Skills: 21 Tips and Ideas to Help You Make a Difference. (Office of National Drug Control Policy, pamphlet: no location or date).

7. Engs, R. C., and Hanson, D. J. Drinking games and problems related to drinking among moderate and heavy drinkers. Psychological Reports, 1993, 73, 115-120.

8. These are standard drink sizes. Of course, five ounces of a dessert wine contain more alcohol, as does higher content beer or ale, or a distilled spirit higher than the typical 80 proof. The equivalent sizes of these drinks would differ from those of standard drinks, a fact that drinkers should keep in mind. (Carroll, C. R. Drugs in Modern Society. Boston, Massachusetts: McGraw-Hill, 2000, p 77.) Because standard drinks are equivalent in alcohol content, it is misleading to refer to spirits as "hard liquor," which implies that drinking distilled spirits leads more quickly to intoxication than other alcohol beverages.

9. Moskowitz, H. Drinking Under the Influence. In: Ammerman, R. T., et al. (Eds.) Prevention and Societal Impact of Drug and Alcohol Abuse. Mahwah, New Jersey: Erlbaum, 1999. Pp.109-123.

10. Hanson, D. J. Alcohol Education: What We Must Do. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger, 1996.

11. Los Angeles Times, June 25, 2001; also see www.latimes.com/

Readings (Listing does not imply endorsement)

Berkowitz, A. D., and Perkins, H. W. Current Issues in Effective Alcohol Education. In: Sherwood, J. S. (Ed.) Alcohol Policies and Practices on College and University Campuses. Washington, DC: National Association of Student Personnel Administrators, 1987.

Engs, R. C. Alcohol and Other Drugs: Self-Responsibility. Bloomington, Indiana: Tichenor, 1989.

Engs, R. C., and Hanson, D. J. Drinking games and problems related to drinking among moderate and heavy drinkers. Psychological Reports, 1993, 73, 115-120.

Glassner, B., and Berg, B. How Jews avoid drinking problems. American Sociological Review, 1980, 45, 646-664.

Globetti, G. Prohibition Norms and Teenage Drinking. In: Ewing, J. A., and Rouse, B. A. (Ed.) Drinking Alcohol in American Society Issues and Current Research. Chicago, Illinois: Nelson-Hall, 1978. Pp. 159-170.

Graham, J. W., et al. Social influence processes affecting adolescent substance use. Journal of Applied Psychology, 1991, 76(2).

Greeley, A. M., et al. Ethnic Drinking Subcultures. New York: Praeger, 1980.

Graham, J. W., et al. Preventing alcohol, marijuana and cigarette use among adolescents: Peer pressure resistance training versus establishing conservative norms. Preventive Medicine, 1991, 20.

Haines, M. P. A Social Norms Approach to Preventing Binge Drinking at Colleges and Universities. Newton, Massachusetts: Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention, 1996.

Hanson, D. J. Preventing Alcohol Abuse: Alcohol, Culture and Control. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger, 1995.

Hanson, D. J. Alcohol Education: What We Must Do. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger, 1996.

Hanson, D. J., and Engs, R. C. Drinking Behavior: Taking Personal Responsibility. In: Venturelli, P. J. (Ed.) Drug Use in America: Social, Cultural, and Political Perspectives. Boston, Massachusetts: Jones and Bartlett, 1994. Pp. 175-181.

Heath, D. B. Cross-Cultural Studies of Alcohol Use. In: Galanter, M. (Ed.) Recent Developments in Alcoholism. (v. 2) New York: Plenum, 1984. Pp. 405-415.

Heath, D. B. An Anthropological View of Alcohol and Culture in International Perspective. In: Heath, D. B. (Ed.) International Handbook on Alcohol and Culture. London, England: Greenwood, 1998. Pp. 328-347.

Lender, M., and Martin, J. K. Drinking in America. New York: Free Press, 1982.

Levine, H. G. Temperance Cultures: Alcohol as a Problem in Nordic and English-Speaking Cultures. In: Lader, M., et al. The Nature of Alcohol and Drug-Related Problems. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992. Pp. 16-36.

Lolli, G., et al. Alcohol in Italian Culture. Glencoe, Illinois: Free Press, 1958.

Marlatt, G. A. Alcohol, expectancy, and emotional states: How drinking patterns may be affected by beliefs about alcohol's effects. Alcohol Health and Research World, 1987, 11, 10-13, 80-81.

Mendelson, J. H., and Mello, N. K. Alcohol Use and Abuse in America. Boston, Massachusetts: Little, Bacon, 1985.

Milgram, G. G. The Facts about Drinking. Mount Vernon, NY: Consumers Union, 1990.

Moskowitz, H. Drinking Under the Influence. In: Ammerman, R. T., et al. (Eds.) Prevention and Societal Impact of Drug and Alcohol Abuse. Mahwah, New Jersey: Erlbaum, 1999. Pp. 109-123.

O'Malley, P. M. , et al. Alcohol use among adolescents. Alcohol Health and Research World, 1998, 22(2), 85-93.

Peele, S. Utilizing culture and behavior in epidemiological models of alcohol consumption and consequences for Western nations. Alcohol & Alcoholism, 1997, 32, 51-64.

Peele, S., and Brodsky, A. Alcohol and Society: How Culture Influences the Way People Drink. San Francisco, California: Wine Institute, 1996, pamphlet.

Perkins, H. W. Confronting Misperceptions of Peer Drug Use Norms among American College Students: An Alternative Approach for Alcohol and Drug Education. In: Peer Prevention Implementation Manual. Fort Worth, Texas: Texas Christian University, Higher Education Leadership/Peers Network, 1991.

Presley, C. A., et al. Alcohol and Drugs on American Campuses: A Report to College Presidents. Carbondale, Illinois: CORE Institute, 1998.

Royce, J. E. Alcohol Problems: A Comprehensive Survey. New York: Free Press, 1981.

Sculenberg, J., et al. Getting drunk and growing up: Trajectories of frequent binge drinking during the transition to young adulthood. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 1996, 57(3), 289.

Snyder, C. R. Alcohol and the Jews: A Cultural Study of Drinking and Sobriety. Glencoe, Illinois: Free Press, 1958.

Wechsler, H., et al. Changes in binge drinking and related problems among American college students between 1993 and 1997: Results of the Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Survey. Journal of American College Health, 1998, 47, 57-68.

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