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References

1. Dufouil, C. Sex differences in the association between alcohol consumption and cognitive performance. American Journal of Epidemiology, 1997, 146(5), 405-412; Rouche, B. The Neutral Spirit. Boston, Massachusetts: Little, Brown & Co. 1960, p. 76; Christian, J. C., et al. Self-reported alcohol intake and cognition in aging twins. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 1995, 56, 414-416; Elias, P.K., et al. Alcohol consumption and cognitive performance in the Framingham Heart Study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 1999, 150(6), 580-589; Bates, M.E., and Tracy, J.I. Cognitive functioning in young "social drinkers": Is there impairment to detect? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1990, 99, 242-249. Galanis, D. J., et al. A longitudinal study of drinking and congnitive performance in elderly Japanese American men in The Honolulu-Asia Aging Study. American Journal of Public Health, 2000, 90, 1254-1259.

2. These are standard drink sizes. Of course, five ounces of a fortified wine contain more alcohol, as does a higher content beer or ale, or a distilled spirit higher than the typical 80 proof. The equivalent sizes of these would differ from standard drinks, a fact that drinkers should keep in mind (Carroll, C.R. Drugs in Modern Society. Boston, Massachusetts: McGraw-Hill, 2000, p. 77) Because standard drinks are equivalent in alcohol content, it is misleading to refer to spirits as "hard liquor," which implies that drinking distilled spirits leads more quickly to intoxication than other alcohol beverages.

3. Cline, C. N. (Ed.) The Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) of Life. New York: Cader Books, 1997, p. 639.

4. Carroll, C. R. Drugs in Modern Society. Boston, Massachusetts: McGraw-Hill, 2000, p. 79.

5. Avis, H. Drugs and Life. McGraw-Hill, 1999, p. 40.

6. Furnas, J. C. The Life and Times of the Late Demon Rum. New York: Putnam's Sons, 1965; Asbury, H. The Great Illusion: An Informal History of Prohibition. New York: Greenwood, 1968; Kobler, J. Ardent Spirits: The Rise and Fall of Prohibition. New York: Putnam's Sons, 1973. This myth ("If you drink long enough, you'll become a drunk") actually appears on a web site for college students sponsored by the Center for Science in the Public Interest. Unfortunately, this myth is neither scientific nor in the public interest.

7. Kobler, J. Ardent Spirits: The Rise and Fall of Prohibition. New York: Putnam's Sons, 1973; Barr, A. Drink: A Social History of America. New York: Carrol & Graff, 1999; Asbury, H. The Great Illusion: An Informal History of Prohibition. New York: Greenwood, 1968; Furnas, J. C. The Life and Times of the Late Demon Rum. New York: Putnam's Sons, 1965.

8. Wechsler, H., et al. Changes in binge drinking and related problems among American college students between 1993 and 1997: Results of the Harvard University School of Public Health College Alcohol Survey. Journal of American College Health, 1998, 47, 57-68; Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, 1997 (www.isr.umich.edu/src/mtf).

9. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol and Women. Washington, DC: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Alcohol Alert #10 (October, 1990).

10. Avis, H. Drugs and Life. McGraw-Hill, 1999, p. 63; Blume, S. Women: Clinical Aspects. In: Lowenson, J., et al. (Eds.) Substance: A Comprehensive Textbook. Baltimore, Maryland: William & Wilkins, 1997.

11. Philips, M. et al. Endogenous ethanol - its metabolic, behavioral and biomedical significance. Alcohol, 1986, 3, 239-247.

12. US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Statistics, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. Cited in Brunner, B. (Ed.) Time Almanac 2000. Boston, Massachusetts: Information Please, 1999, p. 388. Heavy use defined as 5 or more drinks on same occasion on each of five or more days in previous 30 days.

13. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration. The 1998 National Household Survey of Drug Abuse. Washington, DC: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration, 1999.

14. Johnson, L. D., et al. National Survey Results on Drug Use from The Monitoring The Future Study, 1975-1997. Washington, DC: National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Vol. I, Secondary School Students, 1998.; PRIDE Survey. News from PRIDE Surveys, Sept. 8, 1999 (press release).

15. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol and Health: Ninth Special Report to the US Congress. Washington, DC: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 1997; National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. 1995 Youth Fatal Crash and Alcohol Facts. Washington, DC: Department of Transportation, 1997.

16. Ash, R. The Top 10 of Everything 2000. New York: DK Publications, 1999, p. 222; The World Health Organization (WHO) cited by Abramson, H. The flip side of French drinking. San Rafael, California: The Marin Institute for the Prevention of Alcohol and other Drug Problems. Unpublished paper, n.d., p. 1.

17. Barr, A. Drink: A Social History of America. New York: Carroll & Graff, 1999 p. 268; International Center for Alcohol Policies. Drinking Age Limits. Washington, DC: International Center for Alcohol Policies, 1998.

18. The definitive review of the research literature is Fisher, J. C. Advertising, Alcohol Consumption, and Abuse: A Worldwide Survey. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood, 1993.

19. http://www.georgian.net/rally/tequila;
http://weber.u.washington.edu/~schell/tequila.html.

20. Dennison, D., et al. Alcohol and Behavior. St. Louis, Missouri: C.V. Mosby, 1980, p. 34.

21. Pearson, T., and Terry, P. What to advise patients about drinking alcohol. Journal of the American Medical Association, 1994, 272 (12).

22. Bureau of Alcoholic Rehabilitation. Shattering Myths About Drinking. Tallahassee, Florida: Department of Health and Rehbilative Services, 1973, p. 11.

23. Hanson, D. J. Preventing Alcohol Abuse: Alcohol, Culture and Control. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger, 1995.

24. Bureau of Alcoholic Rehabilitation. Shattering Myths About Drinking. Tallahassee, Florida: Department of Health and Rehabilative Service, 1973, p. 16.

25. Johnson, L.D., O'Malley, P.M., and Bachman, J.G. National Survey Results on Drug Use from The Monitoring The Future Study, 1975-1999. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2000; Vol. I: Secondary School Students, 1999; Vol II: College Students and Young Adults, 1999. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2000.
26. Not only does the federal government promote this belief, but also pushes behavioral implications based on it. In its words: "Myth: There is no point in postponing drinking until I'm over 21. Fact: Research shows that the longer you postpone drinking, the less likely you are to ever experience alcohol-related problems." National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Top Ten Myths about Alcohol. Washington, DC: National Institutes of Health. (Poster, n.d.) Conclusions based on myth are not likely to be valid or useful.

27. Velleman, R., and Orford, J. Risk and Resilience: Adults Who Were the Children of Problem Drinkers. London, England: Harwood , 1999.

28. Ibid.

29. Pearson, T., and Terry, P. What to advise patients about drinking alcohol. Journal of the American Medical Association, 1994 (September 28), 272(12).

Readings (Listing does not imply endorsement)

Asbury, H. The Great Illusion: An Informal History of Prohibition. New York: Greenwood, 1968.

Astin, A , et al. The American Freshman: Thirty Year Trends, 1966-1196. Los Angeles, California: University of California, Higher Education Research Institute, 1997.

Commission on Substance Abuse at Colleges and Universities. Rethinking Rites of Passage, Substance Abuse on American Campuses. New York: Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, 1994. (An investigative reporter has revealed that much information in this report is inaccurate, incorrect, or misleading.)

Ellison, R. C. Does Moderate Alcohol Consumption Prolong Life? New York: American Council on Science and Health, 1993.

Erdoes, R. 1000 Remarkable Facts about Booze. New York: Routledge, 1981.

Everet, A. S. Rum Across the Border. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University, 1978.

Fisher, J. C. Advertising, Alcohol Consumption, and Abuse: A Worldwide Survey. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood, 1993.

Furnas, J. C. The Life and Times of the Late Demon Rum. New York: Putnam's Sons, 1965.

Grant, M., and Ritson, B. Alcohol: The Prevention Debate. New York: St. Martin's , 1983.

Hanson, D. J. Preventing Alcohol Abuse: Alcohol, Culture, and Control. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger, 1995.

Heath, D. The new temperance movement. Drugs & Society, 1989, 3, 143-168.

Kobler, J. Ardent Spirits: The Rise and Fall of Prohibition. New York: Putnam's Sons, 1973.

Lender, M. E., and Martin, J. K. Drinking in America. New York: Free Press, 1982.

Perdue, L., and Shoemaker, W. The French Paradox and Beyond. Sonoma, California: Renaissance, 1992.

Stratton, K., et al. (Eds.) Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Diagnosis, Epidemiology, Prevention, and Treatment. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1996.

Wechsler, H., et al. Binge drinking, tobacco, and illicit drug use and involvement of college students: A survey of students at 140 American colleges. Journal of American College Health, 1997, 45(5), 195.

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