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References

1. The American Dietetic Association points out that the facts of alcohol beverage equivalence "are emphasized by the federal government and numerous public health organizations including Nation Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Departments of Transportation and Health and Human Services, National Consumers League, National Council of Alcoholism and Drug Dependence, and Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD)" (American Dietetic Association, Nutrition Fact Sheet: Moderate Consumption of Distilled Spirits and Other Beverage Alcohol in an Adult Diet. Chicago, Illinois: American Dietetic Association, 2001, p.1). Alcohol beverage equivalence applies to standard drink sizes. Of course, five ounces of a desert wine contains more alcohol, as does a higher alcohol content beer or ale, or a distilled spirit higher than the typical 80 proof. The equivalent sizes for these drinks would differ from those of a standard drink, a fact that drinkers should keep in mind. (Carol, C. R. Drugs in Modern Society. Boston, Massachusetts: McGraw-Hill, 2000, p. 77.)

2. In the words of the American Dietetic Association, "Knowing the facts of beverage alcohol equivalence is a crucial aspect of responsible drinking" (American Dietetic Association, Nutrition Fact Sheet: Moderate Consumption of Distilled Spirits and Other Beverage Alcohol in an Adult Diet. Chicago, Illinois: American Dietetic Association, 2001, p.1).

3. Engs, Ruth C., and Hanson, David J. Drinking games and problems related to drinking among moderate and heavy drinkers. Psychological Reports, 1993, 73, 115-120.

Readings (Listing does not imply endorsement)

Camargo, C.A., et al. Prospective study of moderate alcohol consumption and mortality in US male physicians. Archives of Internal Medicine, 1997, 157, 79-85.

Coate, D. Moderate drinking and coronary heart disease mortality: Evidence from NHANES I and NHANES I follow-up. American Journal of Public Health,1993, 83(6), 888-890.

Doll, R., and Peto, R. Mortality in relation to consumption of alcohol: 13 years' observations on male British doctors. British Medical Journal, 1994, 309, 911-918.

Ellison, R.C. Does Moderate alcohol Consumption Prolong Life? New York: American Council on Science and Health, 1993.

Fuchs, C.S., et al. Alcohol consumption and mortality among women. The New England Journal of Medicine, 1995, 332(19), 1245-1250.

Hennekens, C.H.. Alcohol and Risk of coronary Events. In: National on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol and the Cardiovascular System. Washington, DC: U.S. Departmenbt of Health and Human Services, 1996.

Manson, J.E., et al. Prevention of Myocardial Infarction. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Razy, G., et al. Alcohol consumption and its relation to cardiovascular risk factors in British women. British Medical Journal, 1992, 304, 80-83.

Rimm, E., et al. Prospective study of alcohol consumption and risk of coronary disease in med. The Lancet, 1991, 338, 464-468.

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