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References

1. Crawford, C. T., and Gramm, W. L. K. Cover memo to Omnibus Petition for Regulation of Unfair and Deceptive Alcoholic Beverage Advertising and Marketing Practices Docket No. 209-46. Washington, DC: Federal Trade Commission, March 6, 1985, p. 2.

2. Congressional Record, May 20, 1985.

3. U. S. Department of Health and Human Services. Seventh Special Report to the U. S. Congress on Alcohol and Health. Rockville, MD: U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1990.

4. Wilcox, G. B., Franke, G. R., and Vacker, B. Alcohol Beverage Advertising and Consumption in the United States: 1964-1984. Austin, TX: University of Texas, Department of Advertising Working Paper, January, 1986, p. III; Sanders, James. Alcohol Advertisements Do Not Encourage Alcohol Abuse Among Teens. In: Wekesser, Carol (ed.) Alcoholism. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press, 1994. Pp. 132-135, p. 133.

5. Ogbourne, A. C., and Smart, R. G. Will restrictions on alcohol advertising reduce alcohol consumption? The British Journal of Addiction, 1980, 75, 296-298; Smart, R. G., and Cutler, R. E. The alcohol advertising ban in British Columbia: Problems and effects on beverage consumption. The British Journal of Addiction. 1976, 7, 13-21; Waterson, M. J. Advertising and Alcohol Abuse. Advertising Association, p. 10.

6. Shoup, Harold, and Dobday, Christine. Alcohol Advertising Restrictions without Due Cause. In: Engs, Ruth C. (ed.) Controversies in the Addictions Field. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt, 1990. Pp. 130-135, p. 131.

7. Chafetz,Movus E. Television Liquor Ads will not Promote Underage Drinking. In: Scott, Barbour (ed.) Alcohol, Opposing Viewpoints. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press, 1998. pp. 75-77.

8. Fisher, Joseph C. Advertising, Alcohol Consumption, and Abuse: A Worldwide Survey. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1993, p. 150.

9. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Alcohol and health: Seventh Special Report to the U.S. Congress on Alcohol and Health From the Secretary of Health and Human Services. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1990, pp. 211-212; Pittman, David J., and Lambert, M. Dow. Alcohol, Alcoholism and Advertising. St. Louis, MO: Washington University, Social Science Institute, 1978, p. 28; Moskowitz, Joel M. The primary prevention of alcohol problems: A critical review of the research literature. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 1989, 50, 54-88, p. 59; Whitehead, P. Is Advertising Effective? Implications for Public Health Policy. In: Rush, Brian, and Ogborne, Allan C. (eds.) Evaluation Research in the Canadian Addictions Field. Ottawa, Ontario: Health and Welfare Canada, 1983. Pp. 32-33; Frankena, M., Cohen, M., Daniel, T., Ehrlich, L., Greenspun, N., and Kelman, D. Alcohol Advertising, Consumption and Abuse. In: Federal Trade Commission. Recommendations of the Staff of the Federal Trade Commission: Omnibus Petition for Regulation of Unfair and Deceptive Alcoholic Beverage Marketing Practices, Docket No. 209-46. Washington, DC: Federal Trade Commission, 1985; Smart, Reginald G. Does alcohol advertising affect overall consumption? A review of empirical studies. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 1988, 49, 314-323; Smart, Reginald G. The Impact of Prevention Measures: An Examination of Research Findings. In: Institute of Medicine. Legislative Approaches to Prevention of Alcohol-Related Problems: An Inter-American Workshop - Proceedings. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1982. Pp. 224-246; Atkin, Charles K. Alcoholic-Beverage Advertising: Its Content and Impact. In: Holder, Harold D., and Mello, Nancy K. (eds.) Control Issues in Alcohol Abuse Prevention: Strategies for States and Communities. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1987. Pp. 267-303, p. 273.

10. www.beerwsc.co.nz/html/advertising-consumption.html

11. Nelson, Jon P. Broadcast Advertising and U. S. Demand for Alcoholic Beverages. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University, 1977; Nelson, Jon P. and Moran, J. R. Advertising and U. S. alcoholic beverage demand: a growth-accounting analysis. Empirical Economics, 1995, 22, 1-20.

12. Adapted from Shoup, Harold, and Dobday, Christine. Alcohol Advertising Restrictions without Due Cause. In: Engs, Ruth C. (ed.) Controversies in the Addictions Field. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt, 1990, p. 133.

13. Taylor, Patricia. Alcohol Advertisements Encourage Alcohol Abuse. In: Wekesser, Carol (ed.) Alcoholism. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press, 1994. Pp. 111-121, p. 112. (Chapter is from Taylor's testimony before the U.S. House of Representatives Subcommittee on Transportation and Hazardous Materials, March 1, 1990.)

14. Connolly, G. M., Casswell, S., Zhang, J-F., and Silva, P. A. Alcohol in the mass media and drinking by adolescents: A longitudinal study. Addiction, 1994, 89, 1255-1263.

15. Cafiso, J., Goodstadt, M., Garlington, W., and Sheppard, M. Television portrayal of alcohol and other beverages. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 1982, 43, 1232-1243.

16. Madden, P., and Grube, J. Alcohol and tobacco advertising on sports and prime-time television. Paper presented at the American Public Health Association meetings, Atlanta, GA, November 13, 1991.

17.Jacobson, Michael, Atkins, Robert, and Hacker, George. The Booze Merchants: The Inebriating of America. Washington, DC: Center for Science in the Public Interest, 1983, p. 126.

18. Ibid, 1983, p. 138.

19. Roper Youth Report, August, 1996.

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