Category: Women’s Health & Alcohol


Readings

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
  • [Note: It has been pointed out that "given its emotive nature, the issue of risk to pregnancy has frequently been overstated. For example, US publicity material in the 1980s and early 1990s frequently quoted Clarren, a worker at the Seattle Institute of Dysmorphology, as having stated that alcohol was the third most important cause of infant handicaps. However, Clarren was referring to handicaps with known causes, which are only about 10 per cent of the total. Such problem inflation is fanned by press reports of cases of severe alcohol damage, and although scientists may dismiss isolated reports, they assume great importance in the minds of the public and consequently in the minds of policy-makers."
  • The past is illuminating; "In the US no public warnings were issued until 1977. Women were then warned against consuming more than six drinks a day. At the same time, moves to display compulsory public health warnings about the dangers of alcohol to the foetus were rejected. In 1980 a national workshop was held and the following year the American Surgeon General issued a warning to pregnant women against consuming alcohol, even in food. In spite of protests, this warning was widely publicised and increased research funding for nationally co-ordinated projects on the topic provided. In New York and many other parts of the country, bars, restaurants and liquor stores are required to display a sign stating that drinking can cause birth defects. Since 1989, every container of alcoholic beverage sold in the US has had to carry a label which gives a warning that women should not drink alcohol during pregnancy because of the risks of birth defects."
  • And the pressure continues: "Since the late 1980s the issue has become of increasing concern to the US legal system. Cases of physicians facing damage suits for failing to advise that alcohol could affect the foetus have been reported. Since 1987 mothers who use alcohol...during pregnancy have become subject to increasing legal controls, compulsory treatment and may even face imprisonment. If their child shows positive signs of damage they may also face charges of child abuse." (Waterson, J. Women and Alcohol in Social Context: Mother's Ruin Revisited. Hampshire, England: Palgrave, 2000, pp. 167-168. Note: internal references deleted)]
  • Aase, J. M., Jones, K. L., and Clarren, S. K. Do we need the term "FAE"? Pediatrics, 95, 428-430.
  • Abel, E. L. Commentary: Fetal alcohol syndrome in families. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 1988, 10, 12.
  • Abel, E. L. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Oradell, NJ: Medical Economics Co., 1990.
  • Abel, E. "Moderate" drinking during pregnancy: cause for concern? Clinical Chimica Acta, 1996, 246, 149-154.
  • Abel, E. L. An update on incidence of FAS: FAS is not an equal opportunity birth defect. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, in press.
  • Abel, E. L., and Hannigan, J. H. Maternal risk factors in fetal alcohol syndrome. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, in press.
  • Abel, E. L., et al. Ratings of fetal alcohol syndrome facial features by medical providers and biomedical students. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 1993, 17, 717-721.
  • Abel, E. L., and Sokol, R. J. Incidence of fetal alcohol syndrome and economic impact of FAS-related anomalies. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 1987, 19, 1024-1031.
  • Abel, E. L., and Sokol, R. J. A revised conservative estimate of the incidence of FAS and its economic impact. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 1991, 15, 514-524.
  • The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Alcohol and Your Unborn Baby. Washington, DC: American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 1987.
  • Anderson, B., and Novick, E. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Pregnant Women Who Abuse Alcohol. Washington, DC: U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1992.
  • Barnett, R., and Schusterman, S. Fetal alcohol syndrome: Review of literature and report of cases. Journal of the American Dental Association, 1985, 111, 591-593.
  • Becker, M., Warr-Leeper, G. A., and Leeper, H. A. Fetal alcohol syndrome: A description of oral motor, articulatory, short-term memory, grammatical, and semantic abilities. Journal of Communication Disorders, 1990, 23, 97-124.
  • Bloss, E. The economic cost of FAS. Alcohol Health & Research World, 1994, 18, 53-54.
  • Caruso, K., and ten Bensel, R. Fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol effects. Minnesota Medicine, 1993, 76, 25-29.
  • Chernoff, G. F. The fetal alcohol syndrome in mice. Teratology, 1977, 15, 223-230.
  • Centers for Disease control. Linking multiple data sources in fetal alcohol syndrome surveillance - Alaska. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 1995, 44, 249-251.
  • Centers for disease Control. Update: Trends in fetal alcohol syndrome - United states, 1979-1993. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 1995, 44, 249-251.
  • Centers for Disease Control. Birth certificates as a source for fetal alcohol syndrome case ascertainment - Georgia, 1989-1992. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 1995, 44, 251-253.
  • Clarren, S. K. Neuropathology in Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. In: West, J. R. (Ed.) Alcohol and Brain Development. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986. Pp. 158-166.
  • Clarren, S. K., and Smith, D. W. The fetal alcohol syndrome. New England Journal of Medicine, 1978, 298, 1063-1067.
  • Clarren, S. K., et al. Facial effects of fetal alcohol exposure. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 1987, 26, 651-666.
  • Coles, C. D., et al. Identification and Treatment of fetal alcohol syndrome: Pediatricians' perspectives. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 1991, 15, 369.
  • Conry, J. Neuropsychological deficits in fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol effects. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 1990, 14, 650-655.
  • Davis, D. The FAS/FAE child in the classroom. The Iceberg: An Educational Letter on FAS/FAE, 1992.
  • Davis, J. H., and Frost, W. A. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: A challenge for the community health nurse. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 1984, 1, 99-110.
  • Day, N. L. The effects of prenatal exposure to alcohol. Alcohol Health and Research World, 1992, 16(2), 328-244.
  • du Florey, D., et al. A European concerted action: maternal alcohol consumption and its relation to the outcome of pregnancy and development at 18 months. International Journal of Epidemiology, 1992, 21 (Supplement #1).
  • Fitzgerald, P. FAS persists despite broad public awareness. Michigan Medicine, 1988, (May), 262-268.
  • Forrest, F., and du Florey, C. Reported social alcohol consumption during pregnancy and infants' development at 18 months. British Medical Journal, 1991, 303, 22-26.
  • Goodlett, C. R., and Peterson, S. D. Sex differences in vulnerability to developmental spatial learning deficits induced by limited binge alcohol exposure in neonatal rats. Neurobiological Learning and Memory, 1995, 64(3), 265-275.
  • Hamilton, M. Linguistic abilities of children with fetal alcohol syndrome. Unpublished masters thesis, University of Washington, Seattle, 1981.
  • Hankin, J. R. FAS prevention strategies. Alcohol Health & Research World, 1994, 18, 62-66.
  • Harwood, H. J., and Napolitano, D. M. Economic implications of the fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcohol Health & Research World, 1985, 10, 38-43.
  • Jones, K. L., and Smith, D. W. Recognition of the fetal alcohol syndrome in early infancy. Lancet, 1973, 2, 999-1001.
  • Little, B. B., et al. Failure to recognize fetal alcohol syndrome in newborn infants. American Journal of Disease in Children, 1990, 144, 1142-1146.
  • Mattson, S. N., et al. Fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 1992, 16, 1001-1003.
  • May, P. A. Fetal alcohol effects among North American Indians. Alcohol Health & Research World, 1991, 15(3), 239-248.
  • May, P. A. Research Issues in the Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and Alcohol-Related Birth Defects (ARBD). In: Taylor, E., Mail, P. and Hilton, M. (Eds.) Prevention Research on Women and Alcohol. Washington, DC: U. S. Government Printing Office, in press.
  • May, P. A., and Hymbaugh, K. J. A pilot project on fetal alcohol syndrome among American Indians. Alcohol Health & Research World, 1983, 7, 3-9.
  • May, P. A., Hymbaugh, K. J., Aase, J. M., and Samet, J. M. Epidemiology of fetal alcohol syndrome among American Indians of the Southwest. Social Biology, 1983, 30, 374-387.
  • Mena, M., et al. Fetal alcohol syndrome at schools. Bulletin of the Pan American Health Organization, 1986, 20, 157-169.
  • Morse, B. A., et al. Pediatricians' perspectives on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Journal of Substance Abuse, 1992, 4, 187-195.
  • Morse, B. A., et al. Sensory processing in children with fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 1995, 19, 101.
  • Nadel, M. Offspring with fetal alcohol effects. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 1985, 2, 105-116.
  • Nanson, J. L., and Bolaria, M. A. Physician's awareness of fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 1991, 15, 367.
  • Pauker, S. P. By The Way Doctor. Harvard Women's Health Watch, June 2002, p. 7. Dr. Pauket is a member of the Harvard Women's Health Watch Advisory Board.
  • Plaisier, K. J. Fetal alcohol syndrome prevention in American Indian communities of Michigan's upper peninsula. American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research, 1989, 16-33.
  • Polygenis, D., et al. Moderate alcohol consumption during pregnancy and the incidence of fetal malformations: a meta-analysis. Neurotoxicol Teralol., 1998, 20, 61-67.
  • Robinson, G. C., Conry, J. L., and Conry, R. F. Clinical profile and prevalence of fetal alcohol syndrome in an isolated community in British Columbia. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 1987, 137, 203-207.
  • Rosett, H. L. A clinical perspective of the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 1980, 4, 119-122.
  • Rosett, H. L., Weiner, L., and Edelin, K. C. Strategies for prevention of fetal alcohol effects. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1981, 57, 1-7.
  • Russell, M. Clinical implications of recent research on the fetal alcohol syndrome. Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 1991, 67, 207-222.
  • Smith, I. E., and Coles, C. D. Multilevel intervention for prevention of fetal alcohol syndrome and effects of prenatal alcohol exposure. In: Galanter, M. (Ed.) Recent Developments in Alcoholism, Vol. 9. New York: Plenum, 1991.
  • Stratton, K., Howe, C., and Battaglia, F. (Eds). Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Diagnosis, Epidemiology, Prevention, and Treatment. Washington, DC; National Academy Press, 1996.
  • Steinhausen, H. C., et al. Long-term psychopathology and cognitive outcome of children with fetal alcohol syndrome. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1993, 32, 990-1006.
  • Stratton, K., Howe, C., and Battaglia, F. (Eds.) Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Diagnosis, Epidemiology, Prevention, and Treatment. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1996.
  • Streissguth, A. P. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects. In: Sagon, I. S., and Slotkin, T. A. (Ed.) Maternal Substance Abuse and the Developing Nervous System. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1992.
  • Streissguth, A. P., and Randels, S. P. Long Term Effects of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. In: Robinson, G. (Ed.) Alcohol and Child/Family Health. Vancouver, Canada: University of British Columbia Press, 1989.
  • Streissguth, A. P., and Giunta, C. T. Mental health and health needs of infants and preschool children with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. International Journal of Family Psychiatry, 1988, 9, 29-47.
  • Streissguth, A. P., et al. Fetal alcohol syndrome in adolescents and adults. Journal of the American Medical Association, 1991, 265, 1961-1967.
  • Streissguth, A. P., et al. Natural history of the fetal alcohol syndrome. Lancet, 1985, 2, 85-92.
  • Stromland, K. Eyeground malformations in the fetal alcohol syndrome. Neuropediatrics, 1981, 12, 97-98.
  • Troccoli, K. B. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: The impact on children's ability to learn. National Health Education Consortium - Occasional Paper #10, 1992.
  • Ugent, W. D., et al. Fetal alcohol syndrome. School Psychology International, 1986, 7, 55-60.
  • Weiner, L., Morse, B. A., and Garrido, P. FAS/FAE: Focusing prevention on women at risk. International Journal of the Addictions, 1989, 24, 385-395.
  • Wilkie, S. Global overview of drinking recommendations and guidelines. AIM Digest (Supplement), June, 1997, 2-4, p. 4.
Alcohol and Cancers
  • Adami H.-O., et al. Cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and risk of breast cancer in young women. British Journal of Cancer. 1988; 58:832-837.
  • Bailey, L.B. Folate, methyl-related nutrients, alcohol and the MTHFR 677C -->T polymorphous affect cancer risk: intake recommendations. Journal of Nutrition, 2003, 133, 37485-37535.
  • Bowlin S. J., Leske M. C., Varma A., Nasca P., Weinstein A., Caplan L. Breast cancer risk and alcohol consumption: results from a large case-control study. International Journal of Cancer. 1997; 26:915-923.
  • van den Brandt P. A., Goldbohm R. A., van't Veer P. Alcohol and breast cancer: results from the Netherlands Cohort Study. American Journal of Epidemiology. 1995; 141:907-915.
  • Ewertz M. Alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk in Denmark. Cancer Causes Control. 1991; 2:247-252.
  • Freudenheim J. L., Marshall J. R., Graham S., et al. Lifetime alcohol consumption and risk of breast cancer. Nutrition Cancer. 1995; 23:1-11.
  • Friedenreich C. M., Howe G. R., Miller A. B., Jain M.G. A cohort study of alcohol consumption and risk of breast cancer. American Journal of Epidemiology. 1993; 137:512-520.
  • Gapstur S. M., Potter J. D., Sellers T. A., Folsom A. R. Increased risk of breast cancer with alcohol consumption in postmenopausal women. American Journal of Epidemiology. 1992; 136:1221-1231.
  • Graham S., Zielezny M., Marshall, J. et al. Diet in the epidemiology of postmenopausal breast cancer in the New York State Cohort. American Journal of Epidemiology. 1992; 136:1327-1337.
  • Hiatt R. A., Bawol R. D. Alcoholic beverage consumption and breast cancer incidence. American Journal of Epidemiology. 1984; 120:676-683.
    Hiatt R. A., Klatsky A. L., Armstrong, M. A. Alcohol consumption and the risk of breast cancer in a prepaid health plan. Cancer Research. 1988; 48:2284-2287.
  • Holmberg L., Ohlander E. M., Byers T., et al. Diet and breast cancer risk: results from a population-based, case-control study in Sweden. Archives Internal Medicine. 1994; 154:1805-1811.
  • Holmberg L., Baron J. A., Byers T., et al. Alcohol intake and breast cancer risk: effect of exposure from 15 years of age. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers Prev. 1995; 4:843-847.
  • Katsouyanni K., Trichopoulou A., Stuver S., et al. Ethanol and breast cancer: an association that may be both confounded and causal. International Journal of Cancer. 1994; 58:356-361.
  • Lee M. G., Hill C., Kramar A., Flamant R. Alcoholic beverage consumption and breast cancer in a French case-control study. American Journal Epidemiology. 1984; 120:350-357.
  • Levi F., Pasche C., Lucchini F., La Vecchia C. Alcohol and breast cancer in the Swiss Canton of Vaud. European Journal of Cancer. 1996; 32A:2108- 2113.
  • Longnecker M. P. Alcoholic beverage consumption in relation to risk of breast cancer: meta-analysis and review. Cancer Causes Control. 1994; 5:73-82.
  • Longnecker M. P., Newcomb P. A., Mittendorf R., et al. Risk of breast cancer in relation to lifetime alcohol consumption. Journal of National Cancer Institute. 1995; 87:923-929.
  • Longnecker M.P., Paganini-Hill A., Ross R. K. Lifetime alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women in Los Angeles. Cancer Epidemiological Biomarkers Prev. 1995; 4:721-725.
  • Martin-Moreno J. M., Boyle P., Gorgojo L., et al. Alcoholic beverage consumption and risk of breast cancer in Spain. Cancer Causes Control. 1993; 4:345-353.
  • Mills P. K., Beeson W. L., Phillips, R. L., Fraser G. E. Dietary habits and breast cancer incidence among Seventh-Day Adventists. Cancer. 1989; 64:582-590.
  • O'Connell D. L., Hulka B. S., Chambless J. E., Wilkinson W. E., Deubner D. C. Cigarette smoking alcohol consumption, and breast cancer risk. Journal of National Cancer Institute. 1987; 78:229-234.
  • Petri, A.L., et al. Alcohol intake, type of beverage, and risk of cancer in pre- and postmenopausal women. Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research, 2004, 28(7), 1084-1090.
  • Rosenberg L., Metzger L. S., Palmer J. R. Alcohol consumption and risk of breast cancer: a review of the epidemiologic evidence. Epidemiology Review. 1993; 15:133-144.
  • Rosenberg L., Slone D., Shapiro S., et al. Breast cancer and alcoholic-beverage consumption. Lancet. 1982; 1:267-271.
  • Schatzkin A., Carter C. L., Green S. B., et al. Is alcohol consumption related to breast cancer? Results from the Framingham Heart Study. Journal of National Cancer Institute. 1989; 81:31-35.
  • Smith-Warner S. A., Spiegelman D., Yaun S.-S., van den Brandt P. A., Folsom A. R., Goldbohm R. A., Graham S., Holmberg L., Howe G. R., Marshall J. R., Miller A. B., Potter J. D., Speizer F. E., Willett W. C., Wolk A., Hunter D. J. Alcohol and breast cancer in women: a pooled analysis of cohort studies. JAMA. 1998; 279:5335-5340.
  • Swanson C. A., Coates R. J., Malone K. E., et al. Alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk among women under age 45 years. Epidemiology. 1997; 8:231-237.
  • Wellness Facts. Wellness Letter (School of Public Health, University of California at Berkeley), 1999, 15(8), 1.
  • Willett W. C., Stampfer, M. J., Colditz, G. A., Rosner, B. A., Hennekens, C. H., Speizer, F. E. Moderate alcohol consumption and the risk of breast cancer. New England Journal of Medicine. 1987; 316:1174-1185.
Alcohol and Diabetes
  • Avogaro, A., et al. Acute alcohol consumption improves insulin action without affecting insulin secretion in type 2 diabetic subjects. Diabetes Care, 2004 (June 6), 27(6), 1369-1374.
  • Bell, D. Alcohol and the NIDDM patient, Diabetes Care, 1996, 19(5), 509-513.
  • Carlsson, S., et al. Alcohol consumption and the incidence of type 2 diabetes: a 20-year follow-up of the Finnish Twin Cohort Study. Diabetes Care, 2003, 26(10), 2785-2786.
  • Conigrave, K., et al. A prospective study of drinking patterns in relation to risk of Type 2 diabetes among men. Diabetes, 2001, 50, 2390-2395.
  • Davies, M.J., et al. Effects of moderate alcohol intake on fasting insulin and glucose concentrations and insulin sensitivity in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial. The Journal of the American Medical Association. 2002, 287(19), 2559-2562
  • Facchini, F., et al. Light-to-moderate alcohol intake is associated with enhanced insulin sensitivity, Diabetes Care, 1994 (February), 17(2).
  • Ford, Gene. The Science of Health Drinking. San Francisco, CA: Wine Appreciation Guild, 2004, chapter 13, Diabetes Mellitus.
  • Hu, F., et al. Diet, lifestyle and the risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus in women. New England Journal of Medicine, 2001, 345(11), 790-797.
  • Lazarus, R., et al. Alcohol intake and insulin levels: The Normative Aging Study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 1997, 145, 909-916.
  • Mingardi, R., et al. Alcohol intake is associated with a lower prevalence of peripheral vascular disease in non-insulin dependent diabetic women. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, 1997, 7(4).
  • Rimm, E., et al. Prospective study of cigarette smoking, alcohol use and the risk of diabetes in men. British Medical Journal, 1995, 310, 555-559.
  • Solomon, C. G., et al. Moderate alcohol consumption and risk of coronary heart disease among women with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Circulation, 2000, 102, 494-499.
  • Tanner, L. Light to moderate drinking cuts diabetes risk in women, too. Associated Press, 6-10-03; National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse
  • Umed, A., et al. Alcohol consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus among US male physicians. Archives of Internal Medicine, 2000, 160, 1025-1050.
  • Valmidrid, C. T., et al. Alcohol intake and the risk of coronary heart disease mortality in persons with older-onset diabetes mellitus. Journal of the American Medical Association, 1999, 282(3), 239-246.
  • Wei, M. et al. Alcohol intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes in men. Diabetes Care, 23(1), 2000, 18-26.
  • Wheeler, M., et al. Is there a place for alcohol in your diabetes meal plan? Diabetes Forecast, 2003 (August).
Heart/Circulation Problems
  • Alcohol linked to decreased hypertension risk in young women. Women's Health Weekly, April 4, 2002 p18.
  • Cerrate, Paul L. Alcohol, CAD, and the postmenopausal woman. Contemporary OB/GYN, April 2002 v47 i4 p114.
  • Walton, Diane. Alcohol cuts women's risk of heart disease. Globe & Mail (Toronto, Canada), Oct 4, 2002 p1.
Alcohol and Partner Violence
  • Coleman, D. & Murray A. Straus. Alcohol Abuse and Family Violence. In E. Gottheil, (Ed.), Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Aggression. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas, 1983.
  • Collins, James J., Larry A. Kroutil, E. Joyce Roland & Marlee Moore-Gurrera. Issues in the Linkage of Alcohol and Domestic Violence Services. In Galanter, M. (Ed.). Recent Developments in Alcoholism, Volume 13: Alcoholism and Violence. New York: Plenum Press, 1997.
  • Cunradi, C. B., Caetano, R., Clark, C. L., & Schafer, J. Alcohol-related problems and intimate partner violence among White, Black, & Hispanic couples in the U. S. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 1999, 23, 1492-1501.
  • Frank, Phyllis B. & Gail Kadison Golden. Blaming by Naming: Battered Women and the Epidemic of Codependence. Social Work, 1992, Vol. 37, No. 1.
  • Gelles, R. J. Alcohol and Other Drugs are Associated with Violence-They are Not Its Cause. In R. J. Gelles & D. R. Loseke (Eds.), Current Controversies on Family Violence. Sage: Newbury Park, CA, 1993. Pp. 182-196.
  • Gondolf, E.W. Alcohol Abuse, Wife Assault, and Power Needs. Social Service Review, 1995, 69, 275-283.
  • Graham, K. Theories of intoxicated aggression. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 1980, 12, 141-158.
  • Hamilton, C.J., & Collins, J.J. The Role of Alcohol in Wife Beating and Child Abuse: A Review of the Literature. In J.J. Collins (Ed.), Drinking and Crime: Perspectives on the Relationship between Alcohol Consumption and Criminal Behavior. New York: Guilford, 1981. Pp. 253-287.
  • Hart, B. J., & Jans, F. Drugs, Alcohol and Addiction: A Resource Manual for Advocates Working to End Domestic Violence. Pennsylvania Coalition Against Domestic Violence. Harrisburg: 1997. (Available from PCADV, 6400 Flank Drive, Suite 1300, Harrisburg, PA. 17112, 717-545-6400.)
  • Heyman, R. E., O’Leary, K. D., & Jouriles, E. N. Alcohol and aggressive personality styles: Potentiators of serious physical aggression against wives? Journal of Family Psychology, 1995, 9, 44-57
    .
    Kaufman Kantor, Glenda & Murray A. Straus. The 'drunken bum' theory of wife beating." Social Problems, 1987, Vol. 34, No. 3.
  • Lang, A.R, D.J. Gaeskner, V.J. Adesso and G.A. Marlatt. Effects of alcohol on aggression in male social drinkers. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1975, Vol. 84, No. 5, 508-518.
  • Leonard, K. E. & Quigley, B. M. Drinking and marital aggression in newlyweds: An event based analysis of drinking and the occurrence of husband marital aggression. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 1999, 60, 537-545.
  • Leonard, K.E. & Jacob, T. Alcohol, Alcoholism, and Family Violence. In VanHasselt, Morrison, Bellack, & Hersen (Eds.) Handbook of Family Violence. NY: Plenum, 1988. Pp. 383-406.
  • Levy, A.J., & J.S. Brekke. Spouse Battering and Chemical Dependency: Dynamics, Treatment, and Services Delivery. In Finnegan, D. (Ed.) Aggression, Family Violence and Chemical Dependency. Binghamton, NY: Haworth, 1990. Pp. 81-97.
  • Marlatt, G. Alan & Damaris J. Rohsenow. Cognitive Processes. In Alcohol Use: Expectancy and the Balanced Placebo Design. In Mello, N. K. (Ed.) Advances in Substance Abuse Behavioral and Biological Research. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press Inc., 1980.
  • Miller, B.A., W.R. Downs & D.M. Gondoli. Spousal violence among alcoholic women as compared to a random household sample of women. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 1989, Vol. 60, No. 6, 533-540.
  • Miczek, K.A., DeBold, J.F., Haney, M., Tidey, J., Vivian, J., & Weerts, E.M. Alcohol, Drugs of Abuse, and Violence. In A.J. Reiss & J.A. Roth (Eds.) Understanding and Preventing Violence. Washington DC: National Academy Press, 1994. Pp. 377-570.
  • Miller, B.A., Downs, W.R., & Gondoli, D.M. Spousal violence among alcoholic women as compared to a random household sample. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 1989, 50, 533-540.
  • O’Leary, K. D. Through a Psychological Lens: Personality Traits, Personality Disorders, and Levels of Violence. In R. J. Gelles & D. K. Loseke (Eds.), Current Controversies on Family Violence. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 1993. Pp. 7-29.
  • Schumacher, J. A., & O’Leary, K. D. Alcohol Use and Intimate Partner Violence: A Linear Association or a Threshold Effect? Unpublished manuscript. Research Institute on Addictions, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, 2002.
  • Some Doubt the Role Alcohol Plays: Statistics seem to indicate a connection between alcohol and drug abuse and domestic violence, but some researchers question the cause-and-effect relationship. About Alcoholism, 6-24-04.
  • Zubretsky, Theresa M. & Karla M. Digirolamo. The False Connection between Adult Domestic Violence and Alcohol. In Albert R. Roberts, (Ed.). Helping Battered Women. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
Alcohol and Osteoporosis
  • Burger H; de Laet CE; van Daele PL, et al. Risk factors for increased bone loss in an elderly population: the Rotterdam Study. American Journal of Epidemiology. 1998 May 1; 147(9): 871-9.
  • Cheung RC; Gray C; Boyde A, et al. Effects of ethanol on bone cells in vitro resulting in increased absorption. Bone. 1995 Jan; 16(1): 143-7
  • Faine MP Dietary factors related to preservation of oral and skeletal bone mass in women. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. 1995 Jan; 73(1): 65-72
  • Felson DT; Zhang Y; Hannan MT, et al. Alcohol intake and bone mineral density in elderly men and women: The Framingham Study. American Journal of Epidemiology. 1995 Sep 1; 142(5): 485-92.
  • Ganry O; Baudoin C; Fardellone P Effect of alcohol intake on bone mineral density in elderly women: the EPIDOS Study. American Journal of Epidemiology. 2000 Apr 15; 151(8): 773-8
  • Gavaler JS Alcohol and nutrition in postmenopausal women. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 1993 Aug; 12(4): 349-56.
  • Goldberg DM; Soleas GJ; Levesque M Moderate alcohol consumption: the gentle face of Janus. Clinical Biochemistry. 1999 Oct; 32(7): 505-18.
  • Hernandez-Avila M; Colditz GA; Stampfer MJ, et al. Caffeine, moderate alcohol intake, and risk of fractures of the hip and forearm in middle-aged women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1991 Jul; 54(1): 157-63.
  • Høidrup S; Grønbaek M; Gottschau A, et al. Alcohol intake, beverage preference, and risk of hip fracture. American Journal of Epidemiology.1999 Jun 1; 149(11): 993-1001
  • Keller, Evan T., Jian Zhang, & William B. Ershler. Ethanol activates the interleukin-6 promoter in a human bone marrow stromal cell line. The Journals of Gerontology, Series A, Nov 1997 v52 n6 pB311-316.
  • Lappe JM; Stegman MR; Recker RR The impact of lifestyle factors on stress fractures in female Army recruits. Osteoporosis International: a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA. 2001; 12(1): 35-42.
  • Macdonald, Helen M., Susan A New, Michael HN Golden, Marion K Campbell, & David M Reid. Nutritional associations with bone loss during the menopausal transition: evidence of a beneficial effect of calcium, alcohol, and fruit and vegetable nutrients and of a detrimental effect of fatty acids. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Jan 2004 v79 i1 p155-165..
  • Moderate alcohol may slow bone loss. Pulse, July 12, 2004 p20.
  • Moniz C Alcohol and bone. British Medical Bulletin. 1994 Jan; 50(1): 67-75.
  • Mukherjee S; Sorrell MF Effects of alcohol consumption in elderly women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2000 Nov; 72(5): 1073
  • Orwoll, Eric S., Douglas C. Bauer, Thomas M. Vogt, & Kathleen M. Fox. Axial bone mass in older women. Annals of Internal Medicine, Jan 15, 1996 v124 n2 p187 (10)
  • Pittman, David J. What do we know about beneficial consequences of moderate alcohol consumption on social and physical well-being? A critical review of the recent literature. Alcohol intake and bone metabolism in elderly women. Contemporary Drug Problems, Fall 1996 v23 n3 p389-406.
  • Rapuri PB; Gallagher JC; Balhorn KE, et al. Alcohol intake and bone metabolism in elderly women. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2000 Nov; 72(5): 1206-13.
  • Sampson HW Alcohol, osteoporosis, and bone regulating hormones. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research. 1997 May; 21(3): 400-3.
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