Category: Underage Drinking Problems

Parents & Parenting
Drinking at an early Age
Survey Research and Statistics
Alcohol Ads & Marketing
Alcohol Policy
Drinking Trends and Statistics
Other

Readings

Parents & Parenting
  • Allen, M., et al. Comparing the influence of parents and peers on the choice to use drugs: a meta-analytic summary of the literature. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 2003, 30(2), 163-186.
  • Cloud, John. Should you drink with your kids? Time, June 19, 2008.
  • Foley, Kristie Long, et al. Adults' approval and adolescents' alcohol use. Journal of Adolescent Healthy, 2004, 35(4), 345-346.
  • Kaufman, Susan. Teen drinking graduates by grade: Myriad anti-alcohol programs available, but parents ultimately at center. Register-Mail (IL), October 14, 2007.
  • Lieb, David A. Tougher laws proposed to fight underage drinking Legislative panel recommends stronger penalties, closing loopholes. Springfield News-Leader, November 13, 2004.
  • McCaffrey, Barry R. Parenting Skills: 21 Tips and Ideas to Help You Make a Difference. (Office of National Drug Control Policy, pamphlet: no location or date).
  • McGillicuddy, N. B., et al. Agreement between parent and adolescent reports of adolescent substance use. Journal of Child and Adolescent Substance Abuse, 2007, 16(4), 59-78.
  • O'Neil, Iain. Teenagers who drink with their parents are less likely to binge drink, according to a study of 10,000 children. Morning Advertiser (U.K.), May 11, 2007;
  • Peele, Stanton. Don't Panic! A Parent's Guide to Understanding and Preventing Alcohol and Drug Abuse. Minneapolis, Minnesota: CompCare, 1983.
Drinking at Early Age
  • Dawson, D.A. The link between family history and early onset alcoholism: Earlier initiation of drinking or more rapid development of dependence? Journal of Studies on Alcoholism 61(5): 637–646, 2000.
  • Dougherty, D. M., et al. Age at first drink relates to behavioral measures of impulsivity: The immediate and delayed memory tasks. Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research, 2004, 28(3), 408-414.
  • Grant, B.F., and Dawson, D.A. Age of onset of alcohol use and its association with DSM–IV alcohol abuse and dependence: Results from the National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiological Survey. Journal of Substance Abuse, 1997, 9, 103–110.
  • Justus, Alicia N., et al. P300, disinhibited personality, and early-onset alcohol problems. Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research, 2001, 25(10), 1457-1466.
  • McGue, M. et al. Origins and consequences of age at first drink. I. Associations with substance-use disorders, disinhibitory behavior and psychopathology, and P3 amblitude. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 2001, 8, 1156-1165.
  • McGue, M., Iacono, W.G., Legrand, L.N., & Elkins, I. Origins and consequences of age at first drink. II. Familial risk and heritability. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 2001, 25, 1166-1173.
  • Prescott, C.A., and Kendler, K. Age at first drink and risk for alcoholism: A noncausal association. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 1999, 23(1), 101-107.
  • Virkkunen, M., and Linnoila, M. Serotonin in Early–Onset Alcoholism. In: Galanter, M., (ed.). Recent Developments in Alcoholism. Vol 13: Alcohol and Violence. New York: Plenum Press, 1997. pp. 173–189.
  • White, Helene. Age at First Consumption and Future Alcohol- Related Problems. Invited Opinion. International Center for Alcohol Policies, n.d.
  • Wong, P. M., et al. Behavioral control and resiliency in the onset of alcohol and illicit drug use: A prospective study from preschool to adolescence. Child Development, 2006, 77(4), 1016-1033.
Social Norms Marketing
  • Haines, Michael P. A Social Norms Approach to Preventing Binge Drinking at Colleges and Universities. Newton, Massachusetts: Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention, 1996.
  • Linkenbach, J, and Perkins, H.W. Misperceptions of Peer Alcohol Norms in a Statewide Survey of Young Adults. In H. W. Perkins (ed.), The Social Norms Approach to Preventing School and College Age Substance Abuse: A Handbook for Educators, Counselors, and Clinicians, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2003. pp. 173-181
  • Linkenbach, J. and Perkins, H.W. Most of Us Are Tobacco Free: An Eight-Month Social Norms Campaign Reducing Youth Initiation of Smoking in Montana. In H. W. Perkins (ed.), The Social Norms Approach to Preventing School and College Age Substance Abuse: A Handbook for Educators, Counselors, and Clinicians, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2003. pp. 224-234.
  • Linkenbach, J. et al. Parents' Perceptions of Parenting Norms: Using the Social Norms Approach to Reinforce Effective Parenting. In H. W. Perkins (ed.), The Social Norms Approach to Preventing School and College Age Substance Abuse: A Handbook for Educators, Counselors, and Clinicians, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2003, pp. 247-258
  • Perkins, H. W. (Ed.). The Social Norms Approach to Preventing School and College Age Substance Abuse: A Handbook for Educators, Counselors, and Clinicians. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 2003.
  • Perkins, H. W. The Emergence and Evolution of the Social Norms Approach to Substance Abuse . In H. W. Perkins (ed.), The Social Norms Approach to Preventing School and College Age Substance Abuse: A Handbook for Educators, Counselors, and Clinicians, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2003, pp. 3-17
  • Perkins, H. W. and Craig, D.W. The Hobart and William Smith Colleges Experiment: A Synergistic Social Norms Approach Using Print, Electronic Media and Curriculum Infusion to Reduce Collegiate Problem Drinking. In H. W. Perkins (ed.), The Social Norms Approach to Preventing School and College Age Substance Abuse: A Handbook for Educators, Counselors, and Clinicians, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2003, pp. 35-64
  • Perkins, H. W. College Student Perceptions of Alcohol and Other Drug Norms among Peers: Exploring Causes. Consequences, and Implications for Prevention Programs. In: The Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention. The Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention. Newton, Massachusetts: The Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention, 1997, Pp. 177-206.
  • Perkins, H. W., and Craig, D. W. A Multifaceted Social Norms Approach to Reduce High-Risk Drinking. Newton, Massachusetts: The Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention, 2002.
  • Perkins, H. W. "The Promise and Challenge of Future Work on the Social Norms Model." In H. W. Perkins (ed.), The Social Norms Approach to Preventing School and College Age Substance Abuse: A Handbook for Educators, Counselors, and Clinicians, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2003, pp. 280-296
  • Perkins, H. W. and Craig, D.W. A Multifaceted Social Norms Approach to Reduce High-Risk Drinking: Lessons from Hobart and William Smith Colleges. Newton, MA: The Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention, 2002.
Alcohol Ads & Alcohol Marketing
  • Atkin, Charles K. Alcoholic-Beverage Advertising: Its Content and Impact. In: Holder, Harold D. and Mello, Nancy K. (eds.) Control Issues in Alcohol Abuse Prevention: Strategies for States and Communities. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1987. Pp. 267-303.
  • Ogborne, Alan C., and Smart, Reginald G. Will restrictions on alcohol advertising reduce alcohol consumption? British Journal of Addiction, 1980, 75, 293-296.
  • Academic Experts Refute Alcohol Study Linking Ads to underage Drinking. U.S. Newswire, August 7, 2006.
  • AdAge Special Report on leading national advertisers ranked by total advertising spending in the U.S. Advertising Age, June 28, 2004, p. S-2.
  • Alcohol Advertising. Hearing. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1985.
  • A right ruling on newspapers: Alcohol ads should be permitted. Daily News Record, April 4, 2008.
  • Attorney general: Limits on alcohol ads may violate First Amendment. Tennessean, April 12, 2005.
  • Australian Broadcasting Tribunal. Alcohol Advertising on Television. Sydney, Australia: The Australian Broadcasting Tribunal, 1982.
  • Bandow, D. Alcohol Advertisements on Race Cars Do not Promote Underage Drinking. In Newman, L.M. (ed.). Does Advertising Promote Substance Abuse? Detroit, MI: Greenhaven Press, Thomson/Gale, 2005.
  • Barchitta, R. Alcohol Advertising. M.S.P.A. thesis. Sage Colleges, 1992.
  • Berk, C.C. Alcohol industry faces suit alleging marketing to teens. Wall Street Journal, November 21, 2003.
  • Bloomberg News, FTC says alcohol type not aimed at minors. Los Angeles Times, June 5, 2002.
  • Brand, H.M. Alcohol Advertising in Ethnic Minority Communities. M.A. thesis. University of Texas at Austin, 2003.
  • Brown, Jim. Court ruling on campus alcohol ads a step backwards, says MADD. Agape Press, August 9, 2004.
  • Cafiso, J., Goodstadt, M., Garlington, W., and Sheppard, M. Television portrayal of alcohol and other beverages. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 1982, 43, 1232-1243.
  • Caruso, David B. Court: State ban on alcohol ads in college newspapers is unconstitutional. Centre Daily Times, July 29, 2004.
  • Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth. Adolescents are overexposed to alcohol advertising. In:
  • Egendorf, L.K. (ed.). Advertising. Farmington Hills, MI : Greenhaven Press, 2006.
  • Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth. Out of Control: Alcohol Advertising Taking Aim at America's Youth. Washington, DC: Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth, 2002.
  • Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth. Television: Alcohol‘s Vast Adland. Washington, DC: Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth, 2002.
  • Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth. Overexposed: Youth as a Target of Alcohol Advertising in Magazines. Washington, DC: Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth, 2002.
  • Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth. Radio Daze: Alcohol Ads Tune in Underage Youth. Washington, DC: Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth, 2003.
  • Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth. Exposure of African-American Youth to Alcohol Advertising. Washington, DC: Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth, 2003.
  • Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth. Exposure of Hispanic Youth to Alcohol Advertising. Washington, DC: Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth, 2003.
  • Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI). Beware the "Side" Effects of Alcopops, Says CSPI. Press release, Center for Science in the Public Interest, March 3, 2004.
  • Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI). College Greats Join Call for End to Alcohol Ads on College Sports Broadcasts. Press release, Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI), April 14, 2004.
  • Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth (CAMY). New Survey Shows Parents Troubled By Underage Drinking and Alcohol Companies' Advertising Practices Poll finds that parents of teens think alcohol ads have a serious effect on teen drinking habits. Press release, Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth (CAMY), July 14, 2003.
  • Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth (CAMY). African-American Youth Exposed to More Alcohol Advertising than Their Peers. Press release, Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth (CAMY), June 14, 2006.
  • Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth (CAMY). Television Alcohol Ads Bombarding Teens Continue to Rise. Press release, Center on Alcohol and Youth.
  • Center for Science in the Public Interest. CSPI Urges College Presidents to Help Break Tie Between Sports and Alcohol Ads. Press release, Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI), January 15, 2004.
  • Chafetz, M.E. Television Liquor Ads will not Promote Underage Drinking. In: Scott, Barbour (ed.) Alcohol, Opposing Viewpoints. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press, 1998.
  • Chung, P.J. ,et al. Association between adolescent viewership and alcohol advertising on cable television. American Journal of Public Health, 2010 100(3), 555-562.
  • Connolly, G. M., Casswell, S., Zhang, J-F., and Silva, P. A. Alcohol in the mass media and drinking by adolescents: A longitudinal study. Addiction, 1994, 89, 1255-1263.
  • Crawford, C. T., and Gramm, W. L. K. Cover memo to Omnibus Petition for Regulation of Unfair and Deceptive Alcoholic Beverage Advertising and Marketing Practices, Docket No. 209-46. Washington, DC: Federal Trade Commission, March 6, 1985.
  • Dade, P. Drink Talking: 100 Years of Alcohol Advertising. London: Middlesex University Press, 2008.
  • Federal Trade Commission. Alcohol Marketing and Advertising: A Report to Congress. Washington, DC: Federal Trade Commission, 2003.
  • Fisher, Joseph C. Advertising, Alcohol Consumption, and Abuse: A Worldwide Survey. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1993.
  • Frankena, M., Cohen, M., Daniel, T., Ehrlich, L., Greenspun, N., and Kelman, D. Alcohol Advertising, Consumption and Abuse. In: Federal Trade Commission. Recommendations of the Staff of the Federal Trade Commission: Omnibus Petition for Regulation of Unfair and Deceptive Alcoholic Beverage Marketing Practices, Docket No. 209-46. Washington, DC: Federal Trade Commission, 1985.
  • Garfield, C.F., et al. Alcohol advertising in magazines and adolescent readership. JAMA, 2003, 289(18), 2424-2429.
  • Goetz, D. Liquor industry gets stricter on advertising. Courier-Journal (Louisville, KY), September 10, 2003.
  • Gunter, B. et al. Alcohol Advertising and Young People's Drinking : Representation, Reception and Regulation. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.
  • Hacker, George, R. Collins and Michael Jacobson. Marketing Booze to Blacks. Washington, DC: Center for Science in the Public Interest, 1987.
  • Hastings, G., et al. Alcohol advertising: the last chance saloon. British Medical Journal, 2010, 340(7739).
  • Jacobson, Michael, Robert Atkins and George Hacker. The Booze Merchants: the Inebriating of America. Washington, DC: Center for Science in the Public Interest, 1983. In this book CSPI began using the theme that alcohol marketing "targets kids."
  • Jernigan, David. Increased TV ads creating young drinkers. The Hoya, January 19, 2007. David Jernigan heads the Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth (CAMY).
  • Jernigan, David. Selling booze to our babies. Albuquerque Tribune Online, August 28, 2003.
  • Lawler, J.F. Alcohol Advertising : The Latest American Scapegoat. Honors thesis in Business Administration. Millersville University of Pennsylvania, 1991.
  • Lawton, C., and Wilke, J.R. Suit alleges alcohol industry targets underage drinkers. Wall Street Journal, November 28, 2003.
  • Levin, Myron. Lawsuit alleging beer ads target teens is tossed out. Los Angeles Times, February 1, 2005.
  • Maxwell, B., and Michael Jacobson. Marketing Disease to Hispanics: Alcohol.... Washington, DC: Center for Science in he Public Interest, 1989.
  • Melillo, W. FTC: Ads for "alcopops" not aimed at teens. Adweek, June 6, 2002.
  • Milici, F.F. Is This Ad Targeting Me? : The Effects of Perceiving Oneself as a Target of Alcohol Advertising for People under the Legal Drinking Age. Ph.D dissertation. University of Connecticut, 2006.
  • Morley, S.L. Alcohol Advertising in Magazines. M.Ed. thesis. Pennsylvania State University, 1984.
  • Moskowitz, J.M. The primary prevention of alcohol problems: A critical review of the research literature. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 1989, 50, 54-88.
  • Nelson, J.P and Young, D.J. Meta-Analysis of Alcohol Advertising Bans: Cumulative Econometric Estimates of Regulatory Effects. Pennsylvania State University and Montana State University, January, 2003
  • Nelson, Jon P. Broadcast Advertising and U. S. Demand for Alcoholic Beverages. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University, 1977.
  • Nelson, Jon P. and Moran, J. R. Advertising and U. S. alcoholic beverage demand: a growth-accounting analysis. Empirical Economics, 1995, 22, 1-20.
  • Nelson, Jon P. Advertising, alcohol, and youth: Is the alcoholic beverage industry targeting minors with magazine ads? Regulation, 2005, 28(2), Advertising & Media section.
  • Nicholson, M. and Hove, R. Alcohol advertising during televised sports and alcohol consumption by adolescents. JAMA, 2009, 302(14), 1479.
  • Nicholson, M. and Hove, R. Alcohol advertising during televised sports and alcohol consumption by adolescents - reply. JAMA, 2009, 302(5). 487-488.
  • Niemi, B. Advertising Alcohol in College Athletics: Four Dilemmas. M.S. thesis. San Jose State University, 2007.
  • Ogbourne, A. C., and Smart, R. G. Will restrictions on alcohol advertising reduce alcohol consumption? The British Journal of Addiction, 1980, 75, 296-298.
  • Phannapayuk, R. Alcohol Advertising to Youths in American Magazines. M.A. thesis. California State University, Fresno, 1997.
  • Pittman, David J., and Lambert, M. Dow. Alcohol, Alcoholism and Advertising. St. Louis, MO: Washington University, Social Science Institute, 1978.
  • Ritter, K. Swedish Court Kills Ban on Alcohol Ads. Associated Press, February 5, 2003.
  • Saffer, H. Alcohol Advertising and Motor Vehicle Fatalities. Cambridge, MA : National Bureau of Economic Research, 1994.
  • Sanders, James. Alcohol Advertisements Do Not Encourage Alcohol Abuse Among Teens. In: Wekesser, Carol (ed.) Alcoholism. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press, 1994. Pp. 132-135.
  • Santini, J. Court slams liquor-ad ban: appellate judges say Utah's distinguishing between types of alcohol is "irrational." The Salt Lake Tribune, July 25, 2001.
  • Schelzig, Eric. Senate measure would ban lawyers from DUI advertising. Memphis Daily News, April 24, 2008.
  • Shoup, Harold, and Dobday, Christine. Alcohol Advertising Restrictions without Due Cause. In: Engs, Ruth C. (ed.) Controversies in the Addictions Field. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt, 1990. Pp. 130-135.
  • Schultz, Don E. Challenges to study on alcohol advertising effects on youth drinking. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 2006, 160(8), 857.
  • Smart, Reginald. Limitations on alcohol advertising effects on youth drinking. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 2006, 160(8), 857-858.
  • Smart, Reginald G. Does alcohol advertising affect overall consumption? A review of empirical studies. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 1988, 49, 314-323.
  • Smart, Reginald G. The Impact of Prevention Measures: An Examination of Research Findings. In: Institute of Medicine. Legislative Approaches to Prevention of Alcohol-Related Problems: An Inter-American Workshop - Proceedings. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1982. Pp. 224-246.
  • Smart, R. G., and Cutler, R. E. The alcohol advertising ban in British Columbia: Problems and effects on beverage consumption. The British Journal of Addiction. 1976, 7, 13-21.
  • Snyder, Leslie B. et al. Effects of alcohol advertising exposure on drinking among youth. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 2006, 160(8),18-24.
  • Snyder, Leslie B. Limitations of study on alcohol advertising effects on youth drinking - A reply. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 2006, 160(8), 858.
  • Snyder, Susan. Ruling could put alcohol ads back in college newspapers. A federal court overturned a Pa. law that banned paid alcohol ads. Schools and their student papers are assessing the impact. Philadelphia Inquirer, August 4, 2004.
  • Starek, R.B., et al. Advertising alcohol and the first amendment. Washington, DC: Federal Trade Commission, 1997. OCLC Number 37896970
  • Sullum, J. Advertising. Alcohol Advertising Does Not Target Children. In: Egendorf, L.K. (ed.). Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press, 2006.
  • Taylor, Patricia. Alcohol Advertisements Encourage Alcohol Abuse. In: Wekesser, Carol (ed.) Alcoholism. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press, 1994. Pp. 111-121. Chapter is from Taylor's testimony before the U.S. House of Representatives Subcommittee on Transportation and Hazardous Materials, March 1, 1990. Patricia Taylor is former Director of the Alcohol Policies Project of the Center for Science in the Public Interest.
  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Alcohol and Health: Seventh Special Report to the U.S. Congress on Alcohol and Health From the Secretary of Health and Human Services. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1990, pp. 211-212.
  • Waldman, Hilary. Study links advertising, youth drinking: More alcohol ads lead to more consumption, researchers say. Hartford Courant, January 3, 2006.
  • Wallace, C, G. Appeals Court Deals a Blow to Utah's Ban on Liquor Advertisements. Associated Press, July 24, 2001.
  • Whitehead, P. Is Advertising Effective? Implications for Public Health Policy. In: Rush, Brian, and Ogborne, Allan C. (eds.) Evaluation Research in the Canadian Addictions Field. Ottawa, Ontario: Health and Welfare Canada, 1983. Pp. 32-33.
  • Whittet, E. National Differences in Alcohol Advertising Regulation Systems : A Comparison of the United States, France and China. B.A. thesis. Pennsylvania State University, 2010.
  • Wilstein, S. Alcohol Advertisements on Race Cars Promote Underage Drinking. In: Newman, L.M. (ed.). Does Advertising Promote Substance Abuse? Detroit, MI: Greenhaven Press, Thomson/Gale, 2005.
  • Wipathyotin, A. Thailand: Drinkers say ad ban has little effect. Bangkok Post, March 29, 2006.
  • Worsnop, R.L. Alcohol Advertising. CQ Researcher, 1997, 7(10).
  • Zhao, Y. Bottled Fantasies: College Students' Interpretations of Alcohol Advertising and its Effects. Ph.D. dissertation. Southern Illinois University Carbondale, 2008.
Zero Tolerance
  • APA Zero Tolerance Task Force. Are zero tolerance policies effective in schools? American Psychologist, 2008, 63(9), 852-862.
  • Cassingham, Randy. Losing my tolerance for "zero tolerance." (thisistrue.com/zt.html)
  • Cauchon, Dennis. Zero-tolerance policies lack flexibility. USA Today, April 13, 1999.
  • Derbyshire, John. The problem with "zero." National Review, May 28, 2001.
  • Farrington, Heidi. Has "zero tolerance" in schools gone too far? AP, June 15, 2007. (msnbc.msn.com/id/19249868//)
  • Ghezzi, Patti. Zero tolerance for zero tolerance. Atlanta Constitution, March 20, 2006.
  • Gragg, Wendy. "Zero tolerance" a thing of the past in Waco schools. Tribune-Herald (Waco), October 11, 2009.
  • Hylon, Hilary. Texas eases "zero-tolerance" laws. Time, October 5, 2009.
  • McCardle, A. and Erzen, T. (eds.) Zero Tolerance. NY: NYU Press, 2001.
  • Martin, Ralph C. Zero Tolerance Policy. American Bar Association, 2001.
  • Mattiuzzi, Paul G. Zero tolerance policies. Everyday Psychology, March 11, 2009. (everydaypsychology.com/2009/03/zero-tolerance-policies-no-substitute.html)
  • May, M. Zero Tolerance. Hamilton Fish Institute on School and Community Violence, 2000.
  • Peterson, Matt. Schools becoming more 'tolerant' as 'zero tolerance' rules end. Dallas Morning News, September 27, 2009.
  • Radford: Zero tolerance. Roanoke Times (Virginia), October 4, 2009.
  • Scaringi, D. Zero tolerance needed for safe schools. St. Petersburg (Florida) Times, June 24, 2001.
  • Skiba, Russell. Zero Tolerance, Zero Evidence. IU Policy Center report (indiana.edu/~safeschl/ztze.pdf)
  • Skiba, Russell and Reece Peterson. The dark side of zero tolerance. Phi Delta Kappa International, January, 1999.
  • Snider, Laureen. Zero Tolerance Reversed. In: What s a Crime? Vancouver: U. of British Columbia Press, 2004.
  • Zero tolerance. Western Standard, (Canada), August 19, 2009.
  • Zero tolerance. (schoolsecurity.org/trends/zero_tolerance.html)
  • Zero tolerance, zero effect, says expert. Science Daily, September 17, 2009. (sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/09/090916173336.htm)
  • Zero tolerance, zero intelligence. (oblivion.net/oblivion/7/98spr10.html)
  • Zero Tolerance: Information regarding zero tolerance policies for firearms in schools. California Department of Education on Zero Tolerance (cde.ca.gov/ls/ss/se/zerotolerance.asp)
Alcohol Policy
  • Brake, Mike. Needed: A license to drink. Newsweek, March 14, 1994.
  • International Center for Alcohol Policies (ICAP). Guide to Creating Integrative Alcohol Policies. Washington, DC: International Center for Alcohol Policies, 2008.
  • International Center for Alcohol Policies (ICAP). Policy Planning and Choice: Guide to Feasible Interventions. Washington, DC: International Center for Alcohol Policies, 2008.
  • International Center for Alcohol Policies (ICAP). Quick Reference Guide to the ICAP Blue Book: Implementing Alcohol Policy and Targeted
  • Interventions. Washington, DC: International Center for Alcohol Policies, 2008.
  • International Center for Alcohol Policies (ICAP). International Center for Alcohol Policies: The First Ten Years. Washington, DC: International Center for Alcohol Policies, 2005.
  • International Center for Alcohol Policies (ICAP). Alcohol Policy Through Partnership: Is the Glass Half-Empty or Half-Full? A Survey of Key Policy Makers. Washington, DC: International Center for Alcohol Policies, 2002.
  • International Center for Alcohol Policies (ICAP). Alcohol Policy Development:
  • Partnership in Practice. Washington, DC: International Center for Alcohol Policies, 2002.
  • International Center for Alcohol Policies (ICAP). Alcohol Policy 2015: Identifying Future Trends Public Health Workshop. London, 9 June 2005. Washington, DC: International Center for Alcohol Policies, 2005.
  • International Center for Alcohol Policies (ICAP). Sharing Experiences for the Development of the National Policy on Alcohol-Related Harm Prevention and Control. A Workshop Convened by Health Strategy Institute - Ministry of Health in Cooperation with the International Center for Alcohol Policies. Hanoi, 18-19 March 2009. Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Washington, DC: International Center for Alcohol Policies, 2009.
  • International Center for Alcohol Policies (ICAP). ICAP Blue Book: Practical Guides for Alcohol Policy and Targeted Interventions. Washington, DC: International Center for Alcohol Policies, 2005.
  • Williams, Frank G., Kirkman-Liff, Bradford L., and Szivek, Pamela H. College student drinking behaviors before and after changes in state policy. Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 1990, 35, 12-25.
  • National Academy of Sciences and National Institute of Medicine. Reducing Underage Drinking: A Collective Responsibility. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences and National Institute of Medicine, 2003.
Alcohol Education
  • Abraham, Charles, et al. What's in a leaflet? Identifying research-based persuasive messages in European alcohol-education leaflets. Psychology and Health, 2007, 22(1), 31-60.
  • Adams, T.B., et al. Development and evaluation of theory-based alcohol education programs. Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 2006, 50(3), 21-30.
  • Alcohol education messages taking hold. Psychiatric News, 2007, 42(3), 13.
  • Alcohol Education and Research Council. AERC: The Alcohol Education and Research Council. London: Alcohol Education and Research Council, 2004.
  • Alcohol Education and Research Council. Alcohol Education Materials for Secondary Schools. London: Alcohol Education and Research Council, 2003.
  • Argentos, M.J. The Evaluation of a Drug and Alcohol Prevention Program in a Secondary School Setting. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Oklahoma, 1991.
  • Blum, S.B., et al. The effect of contracted abstinence on college students' behavior toware alcohol use. Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 1980, 25, 70-77.
  • Brooks, V.S. Alcohol Education Pedagogy. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Wyoming, 1992.
  • Chassey, R.A., and Clifford, D.A. Responsible versus choice: A different approach to alcohol education. Journal of College Student Development, 1988, 29, 275-276.
  • Claydon, P.D. College Student Participation in Alcohol Education: Impact on Alcohol Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California at Santa Barbara, 1982.
  • Coll, K. M. Effectiveness of an alcohol education program among community college students. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 1998, 22, 123–131.
  • Collins, D., and Cellucci, T. Effects of a school-based alcohol education program with a media prevention component. Psychological Reports, 1991, 69- 191-197.
  • Collins, P.C. The Long-Term and Short-Term effects of an Alcohol Education program which Emphasizes Decision Making. Ph.D. dissertation, East Texas State University, 1980.
  • Comacho, R.A. The Effects of a Motion Picture Advance Odrganizer on te Learning of Information in Alcohol Education. Ph.D. dissertation, Boston College, 1987.
  • Croom, Katherine, et al. Impact of an online alcohol education course on behavior and harm for incoming first-year college students: short-term evaluation of a randomized trial. Journal of American College Health, 2009, 57(4), 445-454.
  • Donohue, B., Allen, D. N., Maurer, A., Ozols, J., & DeStefano, G. A controlled evaluation of two prevention programs in reducing alcohol use among college students at low and high risk for alcohol related problems. Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 2004, 48, 13–33.
  • Drinksafe (Campaign). Department of Health Alcohol Education Campaigns: Drinksafe. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Health. Drug and Alcohol Office, 2002.
  • Drug and Alcohol Education. DVD video. London: PBC, 2007.
  • Duryea, E. Utilizing tenents of inoculation theory to develop and evaluate a preventive alcohol education intervention. Journal of School Health, 1983, 53, 250-255.
  • Editor. Making effective alcohol education interventions for high schools. (Editorial). Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 2006, 50(2), 1-4.
  • Egwaoje, E.S. Ninth Grade Preventive Alcohol Education. M.S. thesis, University of Nebraska, 1982.
  • Engs, R.C. Let's look before we leap: the cognitive and behavioral evaluatio of a university alcohol education program. Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 1977, 22, 39-45.
  • Flanigan, B. The hidden subverter: a case study in community adolescent alcohol education. Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 1987, 33, 11-19.
  • Foxcroft, David. Alcohol education: absence of evidence or evidence of absence? Addiction, 2006, 101(7), 1057-1059.
  • Gainer-Constine, J. Evaluation of an Alcohol Education Curriculum Pilot Test. M.S. thesis, University of Utah, 1984.
  • Gentry, Muchelle C. Alcohol Use among College Freshmen: Does Prior Alcohol Education Make a Difference? Thesis, East Carolina University, 2000.
  • Giannetti, V. J., Sieppert, J. D., & Holosko, M. J. Attitudes and knowledge concerning alcohol abuse: Curriculum implications. Journal of Health and Social Policy, 2002, 15, 45–58.
  • Gliksman, L. et al. the impact of a high school alcohol education program. Journal of Drug education, 1983, 13, 229-248.
  • Gonzalez, G.M Alcohol education can prevent alcohol problems. Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 1982, 27, 2-12.
  • Goodstadt, M.S. Alcohol education research and practice. Journal of Drug Education, 1986, 16, 349-365.
  • Grant, M. Alcohol education: Does it really affect drinking problems? Royal Society of Health Journal, 1982, 102, 201-204.
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