Baer, J. S., and Carney, M. M. Biases in the perceptions of the consequences of alcohol use among college students. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 1993, 54, 54-60.
Baer, J. S., Stacy, A., and Lattimer, M. Biases in the perception of drinking norms among college students. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 1991, 52, 580-586.
Berkowitz, Alan D. The Social Norms Approach: Theory, Research and Annotated Bibliography. Trumansburg, NY, 2003.
Berkowitz, Alan D., and Perkins, H. Wesley. Current Issues in Effective Alcohol Education Programming. In: Sherwood, J. S. (Ed.) Alcohol Policies and Practices on College and University Campuses. Washington, DC: National Association of Student Personnel Administrators, 1987.
DeJong, W., and Linkenbach, J. Telling it like it is: Using social norms marketing campaigns to reduce student drinking. American Association for Higher Education Bulletin, 1999, 52(4), 13-16.
Haines, Michael P. A Social Norms Approach to Preventing Binge Drinking at Colleges and Universities. Newton, Massachusetts: Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention, 1996.
Haines, Michael P. Using media to change student norms and prevent alcohol abuse: A tested model. Oregon Higher Education Alcohol and Drug Newsletter, 1993, 1(2), 1-3.
Haines, Michael P., and Spear, A. F. Changing the perceptions of the norm: A strategy to decrease binge drinking among college students. Journal of American College Health, 1996, 45, 134-140.
Hansen, William B., an Graham, J. W. Preventing alcohol, marijuana, and cigarette use among adolescents: Peer pressure resistance training versus establishing conservative norms. Preventive Medicine, 1991, 20, 414-430.
Johannessen, K., et. al. A Practical Guide to Alcohol
Abuse Prevention: A Campus Case Study in Implementing Social Norms
and Environmental Management Approaches. Tucson, AZ: Campus Health
Service, The University of Arizona, 1986.
A detailed examination of the first four years of the University of Arizona's social norm campaign, which achieved a 29% reduction in heavy drinking.
Linkenbach, J.W. Application of social norms marketing to a variety of health issues. Wellness Management, 1999, 15(3).
Linkenbach, J. W. Building a Bridge: Applying the Social Norms Model to Sexual Health. The BACCHUS & GAMMA Sexual Responsibility Manual, 1999. (Available from the Bacchus & Gamma Peer Education Network, www.bacchusgamma.org.
Linkenbach, J.W. Imaginary Peers and the Reign of Error: Binge Drinking Prevention Through Social Norms. The Prevention Connection: A Publication of the Montana Prevention Resource Center and the Addictive and Mental Disorders Division of the Montana Department of Public Health and Human Services, 1999, (3), 1-5.
Linkenbach, J.W. Social Norms Marketing Highlight: Drinking And Driving. In P. Kotler, N. Roberto, & N. Lee (Eds.), Social Marketing: Improving the Quality of Life. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage (2nd Edition, 2002, pp. 162-166).
Linkenbach, J.W. (2002). Social Norms. In P. Kotler, N. Roberto, & N. Lee (Eds.), Social Marketing: Improving the Quality of Life. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage (2nd edition, 2002)
Linkenbach, J. W. and H. W. Perkins, "Misperceptions of Peer
Alcohol Norms in a Statewide Survey of Young Adults," (2003).
In: Perkins, H. Wesley (ed) The Social Norms Approach To Preventing
School And College Age Substance Abuse: A Handbook for Educators,
Counselors, and Clinicians. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2003.
This book chapter reports the results of a state-wide survey of 18 to 24 year old residents in Montana that examines actual and perceived norms for frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption and prevalence of drinking and driving. Results again reveal dramatic discrepancies between actual and perceived norms for both men and women.
Manoff, R.K Social Marketing: New Imperative for Public Health. Praeger Publishers, 1985.
Perkins, H. Wesley. College Student Misperceptions of Alcohol and Other Drug Norms among Peers: Exploring Causes, Consequences, and Implications for Prevention Programs. In: The Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention. Newton, MA: The Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention, 1997. Pp. 177-206.
Perkins, H. Wesley. Scope of the problem: Misperceptions of alcohol and drugs. Prevention through correcting Misperceptions of alcohol and other drug norms: Notes on the state of the field. Catalyst, 1995, 1(3), 1-2.
Perkins, H. Wesley. Social norms and the prevention of alcohol
misuse in college contexts. Journal of Studies on Alcohol/Supplement
No. 14, 2002.
An review of conceptual and empirical studies on the role of social norms in college student alcohol use and in prevention strategies to counter misuse. The normative influences of various constituencies serving as reference groups for students are examined as possible factors influencing students' drinking behavior.
Perkins, H. Wesley, and Berkowiz, Alan D. Perceiving the community norms of alcohol use among students: Some research implications for campus alcohol education programming. International Journal of Addictions, 1986, 21, 961-976.
Perkins, H. Wesley and Craig, David. A Multifaceted Social Norms
Approach to Reduce High-Risk Drinking. Newton, MA: The Higher Education
Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention, Education Development
Center, Inc., 2002.
Describes the Hobart and William Smith Colleges' Social Norms Project, which achieved a 30% reduction in high-risk drinking over 5 years. Contents include a complete description of program components, including data collection, print media campaigns, electronic media campaigns, curriculum development, and campus presentations.
Perkins, H. Wesley, and Wechsler, Henry. Variations in perceived college drinking norms and its impact on alcohol abuse: A nationwide study. Journal of Drug Issues, 1996, 26, 961-974.
Wood, M. D., Nnagoshi, C. T., and Dennis, D. A. Alcohol norms and expectations as predictors of alcohol use and problems in a college student sample. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 1992, 18, 461-476.
For more on social norms marketing, visit
- A Proven Way to Reduce Alcohol Abuse
- Social Norms Marketing: Some Criticisms
- Study of Social Norms Deserves “F” Grade
- National Social Norms Resource Center (www.soicalnorm.org)
- Alcohol Education Project (www.hws.edu/Aca/depts/alcohol)
- Montana Social Norms Project (www.mostofus.org)
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