Drinking Alcohol in Moderation Protective of Type 2 Diabetes
The moderate consumption of alcohol (beer, wine and liquor or distilled spirits) is protective for type 2 diabetes (adult-onset diabetes) in both men and women, according to an analysis of 20 longitudinal cohort studies.
Consumers of alcoholic beverages at different consumption levels were compared to lifetime abstainers. This was done to eliminate any possible "sick-quitter" effects.
Lifetime abstainers and heavy drinkers were at the greatest risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Women who consumed an average of about two drinks per day had a 40% reduction in risk for developing the disease. The beneficial effects of drinking alcohol were observed for up to three drinks per day for women.
For men, the risk of developing type 2 diabetes was lowest among those who consumed about one and one-half drinks per day and benefits continued for up to four drinks per day.
The researchers describe some of the biochemical mechanisms for risk reduction, which include increases in insulin sensitivity after moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages, changes in levels of metabolites of alcohol, increases in HDL cholesterol ("good cholesterol") levels, and the anti-inflammatory effect of alcohol.
Drinking alcohol (beer, wine and liquor or distilled spirits) in moderation is also beneficial to health in general and to enjoying greater longevity, unless contraindicated for medical reasons. A standard drink is:
Standard Drinks graphically illustrates information on the equivalence of standard drinks of beer, wine and distilled spirits or liquor.
- A 12-ounce can or bottle of regular beer
- A 5-ounce glass of dinner wine
- A shot (one and one-half ounces) of 80 proof liquor or spirits such as vodka, tequila, or rum either straight or in a mixed drink.
Standard drinks contain an equivalent amount of alcohol and are all the same to a breathalyzer and to both health and long life.
The research on alcohol consumption and diabetes was conducted at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health in Toronto, Canada, and published in Diabetes Care.
Note: This website makes no health or medical recommendations on drinking alcohol and diabetes and none should be inferred.
- Baliunas, D.O., et al. Alcohol as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Care, 2009, 32, 2123-2132.
- (listing does not imply endorsement)
- Avogaro, A., et al. Acute alcohol consumption improves insulin action without affecting insulin secretion in type 2 diabetic subjects. Diabetes Care, 2004 (June 6), 27(6), 1369-1374.
- Beulens, J., Stolky, R. P., van der Schouw, Y. T. , Grobbee, D. E., Hendriks, H., and Bots, M. L. Alcohol consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes among older women. Diabetes Care, 2005 (December), 28, 2933-2938.
- Carlsson, S., et al. Alcohol consumption and the incidence of type 2 diabetes: a 20-year follow-up of the Finnish Twin Cohort Study. Diabetes Care, 2003, 26(10), 2785-2786.
- Conigrave, K., et al. A prospective study of drinking patterns in relation to risk of Type 2 diabetes among men. Diabetes, 2001, 50, 2390-2395.
- Hu, F., et al. Diet, lifestyle and the risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus in women. New England Journal of Medicine, 2001, 345(11), 790-797.
- Kopper, L., et al. Moderate alcohol consumption lowers the risk of type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of prospective observational studies. Diabetes Care, 2005, 28, 719-725.
- Rimm, E., et al. Prospective study of cigarette smoking, alcohol use and the risk of diabetes in men. British Medical Journal, 1995, 310, 555-559.
- Solomon, C. G., et al. Moderate alcohol consumption and risk of coronary heart disease among women with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Circulation, 2000, 102, 494-499.
- Umed, A., et al. Alcohol consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus among US male physicians. Archives of Internal Medicine, 2000, 160, 1025-1050.
- Wei, M. et al. Alcohol intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes in men. Diabetes Care, 23(1), 2000, 18-26.
- Wheeler, M., et al. Is there a place for alcohol in your diabetes meal plan? Diabetes Forecast, 2003 (August).
filed under: Diabetes