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References

1. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP). A Family Guide to Keeping Youth Mentally Healthy & Drug Free: Monitor Your Child‘s Activities - Underage Drinking, 2005. CSAP is part of the Substance and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), a part of the US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS).

2. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). Alcohol Alert: Underage Drinking - A Major Public Health Challenge, Alcohol Alert #59, April, 2003.

3. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMSHA). National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information. Tips for Teens: The Truth about Alcohol -- Booze, Sauce, Brews, Brewskis, Hootch, Hard Stuff, Juice. n.d.)

4. Mothers Against drunk Driving (MADD) national corporate web site.

5. Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth (CAMY). The Toll of Underage Drinking: Drunk driving, alcohol dependence, risky sexual behavior and health consequences, n.d.

6. Proctor, Swayne. 21 turns 21. Join Together, July 29, 2005. (JoinTogether web site)

7. MacPherson, Karen. National drinking age of 21 successful, popular. Post-Gazette, July 16, 2005.

8. Meltz, Barbara F. Alcohol study says that girls are outpacing boys. Boston Globe, August 11, 2005.

9. Markwiese B.J., Acheson S.K., Levin E.D., Wilson W.A., & Swartzwelder H.S Differential effects of ethanol on memory in adolescent and adult rats. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 1998, 22, 416-421.

10. Hollstedt & Rydberg, 1998; White A., Truesdale M, Bae J., Ahmad S., Wilson W., Best P., & Swartzwelder H.S. Differential effects of alcohol on motor coordination in adolescent and adult rats. Pharmacol Biochem. Behav., 2002, 73, 673-677; White A., Bae J., Truesdale M, Ahmad S., Wilson W., & Swartzwelder H.S. Chronic intermittent alcohol exposure during adolescence prevents normal developmental changes in sensitivity to alcohol-induced motor impairments. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 2002, 26, 960-968.

11. Little, P.J., Kuhn, C.M., Wilson,W.A., & Swartzwelder, H.S. Differential effects of alcohol in adolescent and adult rats. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 1996, 20, 1346-1351; Silveri M., & Spear, L. Decreased sensitivity to hypnotic effects of alcohol early in ontogeny. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 1998, 22, 670-676; Swartzwelder, H.S., Richardson, R., Markwiese, B., Wilson, W., & Little, P. Developmental differences in the acquisition of tolerance to alcohol. Alcohol , 1998, 15, 311-314.

12. Brown, A.S., Tapert, S.F., Granholm, E., & Delis, D.C. Neurocognitive functioning of adolescents: effects of protracted alcohol use. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 2000, 24, 164-171;Tapert, S.F. & Brown S.A. Neuropsychological correlates of adolescent substance abuse: four-year outcomes. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 1999, 5(6), 481-93; Tapert, S.F. & Brown G.G. Kindermann, S.S., Cheung, E.H., Frank, L.R., & Brown, S.A. MRI measurement of brain dysfunction in alcohol-dependent young women. Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research, 2001, 25(2), 236-45; Tapert, S.F., Brown, G.G., Baratta, M.V., & Brown, S.A. ( fMRI BOLD response to alcohol stimuli in alcohol dependent young women. Addictive Behaviors, 2004, 29(1), 33-50.

13. Hanson, David J. Preventing Alcohol Abuse: Alcohol, Culture, and Control. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1995; Heath, Dwight (Ed.) International Handbook on Alcohol and Culture. Westport, CT: Grenwood, 1995.

14. Foley, Kristie Long, et al. Adults’ approval and adolescents’ alcohol use. Journal of Adolescent Health, 2004, 35(4), 345-346. See Drinking with Parents is “Protective” of Alcohol Abuse.

15. Seven States Prohibit Drinking Under Age 21.

 

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