1. Ford, Gene. The French Paradox and Drinking for Health. San Francisco, CA: Wine Appreciation Guild, 1993, p. 108. These are standard drink sizes. Of course, five ounces of a dessert wine contains more alcohol, as does a higher content beer or ale, or a distilled spirit higher than the typical 80 proof. The equivalent sizes for these drinks would differ from those of standard drinks, a fact that drinkers should keep in mind. (Carrol, C. R. Drugs in Modern Society. Boston, Massachusetts: McGraw-Hill, 2000, p. 77.) Because standard drinks are equivalent in alcohol content, it is misleading to refer to spirits as "hard liquor," which implies that drinking distilled spirits leads more quickly or easily to intoxication than other alcohol beverages.

2. Ellison, R. Curtis. Does Moderate Alcohol Consumption Prolong Life? New York: American Council on Science and Health, 1993, p. 108.

3. Marcus, Kim. You don't have to abstain while dieting.Wine Spectator, May 31, 1997, p. 13; Kahn, H. S., et al, Stable behaviors associated with adults' 10-year change in body mass index and likelihood of gain at the waist. American Journal of Public Health, 1997, 87 (5), 747-754; Cordain, L. et al. Influence of moderate daily wine consumption upon body weight regulation and metabolism in healthy free-living males. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 1997, 16 (2); Mannisto, S., et al. Reported alcohol intake, diet and body mass index in male smokers. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1996, 50, 239-245; Rumpler, W. V., et al. Energy value of moderate alcohol consumption. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1996, 64, 108-114; Colditz, G. A. Alcohol intake in relation to diet and obesity in women and men. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1991, 54, 49-55; Lands, W. E. M., and Zakhari, S. The case of the missing calories. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1994, 59, 619-625.

4. Survey conducted by Matheson and Matheson, Inc. San Franciscon, California, reported in Perdue, Lewis, and Shoemaker, Wells. The French Paradox and Beyond. Sonoma, CA: Renaissance Publishing, 1992, p. 43.

5. Roueche, Berton. The Neutral Spirit. Boston, Massachusetts: Little, Brown & Co., 1960, p. 76; Christian, J. C., et al. Self-reported alcohol intake and cognition in aging twins. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 1995, 56, 414-416; Dufouil, C. Sex differences in the association between alcohol consumption and cognitive performance. American Journal of Epidemiology, 1997, 146(5), 405-412; Elias, P., et al. Alcohol consumption and congitive performance in the Framingham Heart Study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 150(6), 550-589; Galanis, C., et al. A longitudinal study of drinking and cognitive performance in elderly Japanese American men: the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study, American Journal of Public Health, 2000, 90(8); Baum-Baicker, C. the psychological benefits of moderate alcohol consumption: a review of the literature. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 1985, 15.

6. Engs, Ruth. Alcohol and other Drugs: Self-Responsibility. Bloomington, Indiana: Tichenor, 1987, pp. 151 & 153.

7. Ibid, p. 151.

8. Lender, Mark E., and Martin, James K. Drinking in America. New York: Free Press, 1982, pp. 122-124; Valverde, M. Diseases of the Will: Alcohol and the Dilemmas of Freedom. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1998, p. 63.

9. Perdue, Lewis, and Shoemaker, Wells. The French Paradox and Beyond. Sonoma, California: Renaissance Publishing, 1992, pp. 65-66.

10. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, (July 18, 1997)

11. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Service Administration. Preliminary results from the 1997 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. Washington, DC, SAMHSA, 1998.

12. Associated Press, May 26, 1999.

13. Levinthal, Charles F. Drugs, Behavior, and Modern Society. Boston, Massachusetts: Allyn and Bacon, 1996, p. 231.

14. The Wine Spectator, April 15, 1990; The New York Times, March 6, 1991.

15. Ellison, C. Curtis. Does Moderate Alcohol Consumption Prolong Life? New York: American Council of Science and Health, 1993.

16. Barr, Andrew. Drink: A Social History of America. New York: Carroll & Graf, 1999, p. 233.

17. US Department of Agriculture Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (; World Almanac and Book of Facts 2000. Mahwah, New Jersey: Primedia, 1999, p. 727.

18. Rouche, p. 77; O'Hara, C.B. The Bloody Mary. New York: Lyons Press, 1999, p. 18.

19. Cottom, Abby. Personal communication. November 30, 1998; O'Hara, C.B. The Bloody Mary. New York: Lyons Press, 1999, p. 11; Hangover remedies. Top Health: The Health Promotion and Wellness Newsletter, 2000 (December), p. 262.

20. Carvey, P. M. Drug Action in the Central Nervous System. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.

21. Mead, Jerry D. Blood alcohol controversy. Wine Trader, 1999, v. T (1), 64.

22. Shepard, Eric. How risky is "binge drinking"? Alcohol Issues Insights,1998, 15(11), 2.

23. U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention. United States Pharmacopeia. Rockville, MD: U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention, 1995.

24. Abel, E. L., and Hannigan, J. H. Maternal risk factrors in Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Provocative and permissive influences. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 1995, 17, 445-462.

25. Prescott, C.A., and Kendler, K.S. Age at first drink and risk for alcoholism: A noncausal association. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 1999, 23, 101-107.

26. Barr, p. 46.

27. Ford, G. Wine, Beer and Spirits: the World's Most Versatile Health Foods, in press, chapter 14 (Diet and Nutrition).

28. Babor, T. Alcohol: Customs and Rituals. New York: Chelsea House, 1986, p. 114; Jeffers, H. P. High Spirits. New York: Lyons & Burford, 1997.

29. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and National Household Survey on Drug Abuse data. Cited by Cressy, P.H., Repeal ban on Sunday liquor sales. The Hartford Courant, 12-7-03.

30. U.S. Department of Agriculture nutrition tables, 2003, p. 15; Prange, M. Plan to keep your drinking safe. The Record (Kitchener-Waterloo, Ontario), 12-10-03.

This site does not dispense medical, legal, or any other advice and none should be inferred.
For more fine print, read the disclaimer.