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1. Insurance Institute for Highway Safety . See its web site (sitewww.hwysafety.org) for information on permissible use of the Institute’s copyrighted materials.

Readings and References

Alberta Transportation & Utilities. Designated Driver ­ A Smart Choice. Edmonton, Alberta, Canada: 1996 (www.ama.ab.ca/trafsafe/thkf_des.htm/.

Associated Press, "Designated Driver Campaign Working," Houston Chronicle, 11-30-97, p. A14.

Barr, A., and MacKinnon, D.P. Designated driving among college students. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 1998, 59(5), 549-554.

Caudill, B.D., et al. DWI prevention: Profiles of drivers who use designated drivers. Addictive Behaviors, 2001, 26(2), 155.

DeJong, W., and Winstein, J.A. The use of designated drivers by U.S. college students: A national study. Journal of American College Health, 1999, 47(4), 151.

DUI Courts Website (American Council on Alcoholism), www.aca-usa.org/duicourtshome.htm

Facts about drowsy driving. The Peer Educator, 2000, 23(4), 9 & 14. To learn more, visit www.dui.com/whatsnew/slep.html.

Gary, S. L. S., et al. Consideration of driver home county prohibition and alcohol-related vehicle crashes. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 2003, 35(5), 641-648.

Graham, K. Preventive interventions for on-premise drinking. Contemporary Drug Problems, 2000, 27(3), 593.

Hanson, D. J. Preventing Alcohol Abuse: Alcohol, Culture and Control. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1995, chapter 3.

Johnson, E. Cheers to the designated driver. Safety & Health, 1995, 152(6), 76-80.

Kinkade, P., et al. Probation and the drunk driver: a cost of being "MADD." (mandatory sentencing for drunk drivers promoted by Mothers Against Drunk Driving not effective alone) Federal Probation, 1992, 56(2), 6-15.

Lundegaard, Karen. DWI court treatment programs in U.S. show signs of helping drunk drivers to sober up. Wall street Journal, 4-7-04, pp. B1-B2.

National Hardcore Drunk Driving Project (www.duidata.org)

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. A Guide to Developing a Community-Based Designated Driver Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Designated Driver, Safe Ride Program Community Action Guide. Washington, DC: NHTSA, 2001.(www.ncadd.com/designated/designated1.html/.

Treatment advocates try to extend drug court success to DUI offenders. Alcoholism & Drug Abuse Weekly, 1999, 11(35), 1

U.S. Department of Transportation. A Guide to Developing a Community-Based Designated Driver Program (www.ncadd.com/designated/designated2.

Wells-Parker, E. Mandated treatment; lessons from research with drinking and driving offenders. Alcohol Health & Research World, 1994, 18(4), 302-307.

Wells-Parker, E., et al. Self-efficacy and motivation for controlling drinking and drinking/driving: an investigation of changes across a Driving Under the Influence (DUI) intervention program and of recidivism prediction. Addictive Behaviors, 2000, 25(2), 229.

Winfree Jr, L.T. and Giever, D.M. On classifying driving-while-intoxicated offenders: The experience of a citywide DWI drug court. Journal of Criminal Justice, 2000, 28(1), 13.

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