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References

1. Drowsy driving is greatly underreported because there is no test for it, as there is for intoxication, no clear way to identify it, and many states don't even have a code for it on their vehicle accident reporting forms. The U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) estimates that about 100,000 police-reported crashes annually involve drowsiness/fatigue as a principal cause. It estimates that these crashes cause $12.5 billion in monetary losses each year. Sleepiness and fatigue also play a role in crashes attributed to other causes. About 1,000,000 crashes annually -- one-sixth of all crashes -- are thought to be caused by driver inattention adn lapses. Sleep deprivation and fatigue make such lapses of attention more likely to occur. In a 1999 National Science Foundation poll, 62% of all adults surveyed in the U.S. reported driving a car or other vehicle while they were drowsy during the previous year. Twenty-seven percent reported that they had, at some time, fallen asleep while driving. People are more likely to fall asleep on high-speed, long, boring, rural highways. The New York State Police estimates that 30% of all fatal accidents on the New York State Thruway occur because drivers fall asleep at the wheel. Studies suggest truck driver fatigue may contribute to at least 30 to 40% of all heavy truck accidents. (Facts about Drowsy Driving. The Peer Educator, 2000, 23(4), 9 &14) To learn more visit www.dui.com/whatsnew/sleep.html. Brookoff, D., Cook, C. S., Williams, C., and Mann, C. S. Testing reckless drivers for cocaine and marijuana. New England Journal of Medicine, 1994, 331, 518-522. See also Saylor, K. E., DuPont, R. L., and Brown, H. The high way: driving under influences other than alcohol. Journal of the American Medical Association, 1992, 267, 652; Kirby, J. M., Maull, K. I., and Fain, W. Comparability of alcohol and drug use in injured drivers. Southern Medical Journal, 1992, 85, 800-802; National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Use of Controlled Substances and Highway Safety: A Report to Congress. Washington, DC: Department of Transportation; Skolnick, A. Illicit drugs take still another toll: death or injury from vehicle-associated trauma. Journal of the American Medical Association, 1990, 263, 3122-3125.

Readings

Benjamin, T. (Ed.). Young Drivers Impaired by Alcohol and Other Drugs. London and New York: Royal Society of Medicine Services, 1987.

Berardelli, P. Safe Young Drivers: A Guide for Parents and Teens. McLean, VA: EPM, 1996.

Brookhuis, K. A., et al. The effects of mobile telephoning on driving performance. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 1991, 23(4), 309-316.

Catchpole, J. Why are Young Drivers Over-Represented in Traffic Accidents? Vermont, South, Victoria, Australia: Australian Road Research Board, 1994.

Chafetz, M.E. A Plan to Prevent Drunk Driving (Washington, DC: The Health Education Foundation, 1983). Available for the price of $5.95 by calling 202-338-3501 or writing The Health Education Foundation, Suite 502, 2600 Virginia Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20037.

Don't Dial and Drive. San Francisco Chronical, Feb. 14, 1997, p. A26.

Frisbie, T. Talking mobile. Traffic Safety, 1991, 91(2), 26-28.

Hanson, D. J. Preventing Alcohol Abuse: Alcohol, Culture, and Control. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger, 1995.

Hanson, D. J., and Engs, R. C. Drinking Behavior: Taking Personal Responsibility. In: Venturelli, P. J. (ed.) Drug Use in America: Social, Cultural, and Political Perspectives. Boston, Massachusetts: Jones and Bartlett, 1994. Pp. 175-181.

McGwin, G. Characteristics of traffic crashes among young, middle-aged, and older drivers. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 1999, 31(3), 181-198.

McKnight, A. J., and McKnight, A. S. The effect of cullular phone use upon driver inattention. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 1993, 25(3), 259-265.

Meister, F. A. A comprehensive approach to DWI. Healthy Drinking, 1995, 9, 20-21.

Petica, S. Risks of cellular phone usage in the car and its impact on road safety. Recherche-Transports-Securite, 1993, 37, 45-56.

Redelmeier, D. A., and Tibshirani, R. J. Association between cellular telephone calls and motor vehicle collisions. New England Journal of Medicine, 1997, 336(7).

Ross, H. L. Confronting Drunk Driving: Social Policy for Saving Lives. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1992

Simpson, H. M., and Mayhew, D. R. The Hard Core Drinking Driver. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: Traffic Injury Research Foundation, 1991, pp. 23-24.

Spierer, E. Young Drivers and Alcohol: Educational Measures and Programmes. In: Benjamin, T. Ed.). Young Drivers Impaired by Alcohol and Other Drugs. London and New York: Royal Society of Medicine Services, 1987. Pp. 227-235.

Violanti, J. M., et al. Cellular phones and traffic safety. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 1996, 28, 265-270.

Voas, R. Actions Against Vehicles and Vehicle Tags to Reduce Driving While Suspended. Executive Summary. Landover, Maryland: National Public Services Research Institute, 1991.

Williams, A. F. Drugs in fatally injured young male drivers. Public Health Reports, 1985, 100(1), 19-25.

 

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