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References

1. The best source of information on abstainers is International Center for Alcohol Policies (ICAP). Who are the Abstainers? Washington, DC: International Center for Alcohol Policies (ICAP Reports #8), June 2000. [Abstention is defined differently in different countries and even by different researchers in the same country. An abstainer can be defined as a person who has never consumed an alcoholic beverage, as not having consumed one within a fixed period of time (for example, within the past year), as not having consumed more than a specific number of drinks within a given period of time (for example, having never consumed more than 12 drinks in any year), and so on. And of course the individual may self-define abstinence differently than does a researcher.]

2. Heath, D.B. Drinking Occasions: Comparative Perspectives on Alcohol and Culture. Philadelphia: Brunner/Mazel. 2000, p. 100.

3. International Center for Alcohol Policies (ICAP). Who are the Abstainers? Washington, DC: International Center for Alcohol Policies (ICAP Reports #8), June 2000, pp. 8-9.

4. U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1997. Washington, DC: DHHS, 1998; Wright, J. W. (Ed.) The New York Times 2000 Almanac. New York: Penguin, 1999, p. 398.

5. Holder, H. D. Alcohol and the Community: A System Approach to Prevention. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

6. Drink and Grow Rich. Wall Street Journal, May 4, 2002; Auld, C. Smoking, Drinking, and Income (manuscript), April 29, 2002

7. Wiley, J., and Comacho, T. Life-style and future health: evidence from the Alameda County Study. Preventive Medicine, 1980, 9, 1-21.

8. Longnecker, M., and MacMahon, B. Associations between alcoholic beverage consumption and hospitalization, 1983 National Health Interview Survey. American Journal of Public Health, 1988, 78(2), 153; Klatsky, A., and Friedman, A. Alcohol use and cardiovascular disease: the Kaiser-Permanente experience. Circulation, 1981, 64 (Supplement III), 32-41; Ford, G. Wines, Beer and Spirits: The World's Most Versatile Health Foods, in press, p. 154.

9. Vasse, R. M., et al. Association between work stress, alcohol and sickness absence. Addiction, 1998, 93(2), 231-241.

10. Teetotalers.com (http://www.teetotalers.com/pages/whatis.htm)

11. Lindiger, W., Taucher, J., Jordan, A., and Vogel, W. Endogenous production of methanol after the consumption of fruit. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 1997, 21, 939-943; Phillips, M., Greenberg, J., and Martinez V., Ostrovsky, Y. M. Endogenous ethanol -- its metabolic, behavioral and biomedical significance. Alcohol, 1986, 3, 239-247.

12. Quick Facts on Alcohol and Driving. Quality L.I.F.E. (www.qualitylife.org/facts_on_alcohol.html.)

Readings

Alcoholics Anonymous. Alcoholics Anonymous. New York: Alcoholics Anonymous World Services, Inc.

Burman, S. The challenge of sobriety: Natural recovery without treatment and self-help groups. Journal of Substance Abuse, 1997, 9, 41-61.

Brodsky, A., and Peele, S. AA's Tactics are Harmful. In: Wekesser, C. (Ed.). Alcoholism. San Diego: Greenhaven, 1994. Pp. 93-103.

Brown, D. Medication May Help Alcoholics Stay Sober. In: Barbour, S. (Ed.). Alcohol. San Diego: Greenhaven, 1998. Pp. 144-148.

Bufe, C. Studies Show Alcoholics Anonymous Is Ineffective. In: Wekesser, C. (Ed.). Alcoholism. San Diego: Greenhaven, 1994. Pp. 72-81.

Burman, S. All-Women Groups Can Help Female Alcoholics. In: Wekesser, C. (Ed.). Alcoholism. San Diego: Greenhaven, 1994. Pp. 220-229.

Carr, N. J. Alcoholics Anonymous is Effective. In: Barbour, S. (Ed.). Alcohol. San Diego: Greenhaven, 1998. Pp. 113-119.

Christopher, J. Secular Organizations for Sobriety is an Effective Self-Help Program. In: Barbour, S. (Ed.). Alcohol. San Diego: Greenhaven, 1998. Pp. 128-134.

Christopher, J. How to Stay Sober: Recovery Without Religion. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus, l988.

Crandell, J. S. Controlled Drinking Can Help Alcoholics Recover. In: Cozic, C. P., and Swisher, K. (Ed.). Chemical Dependency. San Diego: Greenhaven, 199 1. Pp. 218-224.

DeSena, J., et al. Overcoming Your Alcohol, Drug and Recovery Habits: An Empowering Alternative to AA and 12-Step Programs. Tucson, AZ: See Sharp Press, 2003.

Dorsman, J. How to Quit Drinking Without AA: A Complete Self-Help Guide. Newark, DE: New Dawn, 1993.

Ellis, A., and Velten, E. When AA Doesn’t Work for You: Rational Steps to Quitting Alcohol. Fort Lee, NJ: Barricade, 1992.

Fingarette, H. Heavy Drinking: The Myth of Alcoholism as a Disease. Berkeley: University OS California Press, 1988.

FitzGerald, K. W. Alcoholism is a Disease. In: Cozic, C. P., and Swisher, K. (Eds.). Chemical Dependency. San Diego: Greenhaven, 199I. Pp. 96-100.

Fletcher, A.M. Sober for Good: New Solutions for Drinking Problems -- Advice from Those Who Have Succeeded. NY: Houghton-Mifflin, 2001.

Fox, V. Addiction: Change and Choice: The New View of Alcoholism. Tucson, AZ: See Sharp, 1993.

Fox, V. Alcoholics Anonymous is Ineffective. In: Barbour, S. Alcohol. San Diego: Greenhaven, 1998. Pp. 120-127.

Galanter, M. Psychotherapy Can Help Alcoholics. In: Wekesser, C. (Ed.). Alcoholism. San Diego: Greenhaven, 1994. Pp. 202-210.

Gorski, T. T. Alcoholism Should be Treated as a Disease. In: Barbour, S. (Ed.). Alcohol. San Diego: Greenhaven, 1998. Pp. 98-104.

Gorshi, T. T. Alcoholics Anonymous Is the Most Effective Treatment for Alcoholism. In: Wekesser, C. (Ed.). Alcoholism. San Diego: Greenhaven, 1994. Pp. 64-60.

Granfield, R. Coming Clean: Overcoming Addictions without Treatment. New York: New York University Press, 1999.

Horvath, A.T. Sex, Drugs, Gambling & Chocolate: A Workbook for Overcoming Addictions. San Louis Obispo, CA: Impact, 1998.

House Committee on Health and Long-Time Care. Treatment Designed for Elderly Alcoholics Could be Effective. In: Wekesser, C. (Ed.). Alcoholism. San Diego: Greenhaven, 1994. Pp. 230-237.

Humphreys, K., et al. Two pathways out of drinking problems without professional treatment, Addictive Behaviors, 1995, 20(4), 427-441.

International Center for Alcohol Policies (ICAP). Who are the Abstainers? Washington, DC: International Center for Alcohol Policies (ICAP Reports #8), June 2000.

Jellinek, E. M. The Disease Concept of Alcoholism. New Haven, CT: Hillhouse, 1960.

Johnson, V. E. I'll Quit Tomorrow: A Practical Guide to Alcoholism Treatment. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1980.

Kasl, C.D. Many Roads, One Journey: Moving Beyond the 12 Steps. NY: HarperPerrenial, 1992.

Kishline, A. Alcoholism Should Not be Treated as a Disease. In: Barbour, S. (Ed.). Alcohol. San Diego: Greenhaven, 1998. Pp. 105-112.

Kissir, S. Nutritional Therapy Can Help Alcoholics. In: Wekesser, C. (Ed.). Alcoholism. San Diego: Greenhaven, 1994. Pp. 194-198.

Kurtz, E. Not-God: A History of Alcoholics Anonymous. Center City, MN: Hazelden, 1979.

Marlatt, G. A., and Gordon, J. R. (Eds.). Relapse Prevention. New York: Guilford, 1985.

Miller, N. S., and Mahler, J. C. Treatment Centers Effectively Use Twelve-Step Programs to Help Alcoholics. In: Wekesser, C. (Ed.). Alcoholism. San Diego: Greenhaven, 1994. Pp. 61-68.

Miller, S.D. The “Miracle” Method: A Radically New Approach to Problem Drinking. NY: W.W. Norton, 1995.

Miller, W. R., and Munoz, R. F. How to Control Your Drinking. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. 1990.

Parker, C. B. When Someone You Love Drinks Too Much. New York: Harper & Row, 1990.

Patton, P. Buddhism Can Help Alcoholics Stay Sober. In: Barbour, S. (Ed.). Alcoholism. San Diego: Greenhaven, 1998. Pp. 149-156.

Peele, S. et al. The Truth about Alcohol and Recovery. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1991. Hoboken, NJ: Jossey-Bass, 1999.

Peele, S., and Brodsky, A. The Truth about Addiction and Recovery. NY: Fireside, 1991.

Rachel, V. A Woman Like You: Life Stories of Women Recovering from Alcoholism and Addiction. NY: Harper & Row, 1985.

Roberts, M. The Spirituality of AA Helps Alcoholics. In: Wekesser, C. (Ed.). Alcoholism. San Diego: Greenhaven, 1994. Pp. 69-71.

Sanchez-Craig, M. Saying When: How to Quit Drinking or Cut Down. Toronto, Canada: Addiction Research Foundation. 1993.

Schaler, J.A. Addiction is a Choice. Chicago, IL: Open Court, 2000.

Schlesinger, S. E., and Horberg, L. K. Alcoholics Anonymous Can Help Alcoholics Recover. In: Cozic, C. P., and Swisher, K. (Ed.). Chemical Dependency. San Diego: Greenhaven, 199 1. Pp. 212-217.

Shockley, M. Acupuncture Is an Effective Treatment for Alcoholism. In: Wekesser, C. (Ed.). Alcoholism. San Diego: Greenhaven, 1994. Pp. 199-201. In: Wekesser, C. (Ed.). Alcoholism. San Diego: Greenhaven, 1994. Pp. 216-219.

Schuckit, M. A. Antidepressants May be Effective in Treating Alcoholism. In: Wekesser, C. (Ed.). Alcoholism. San Diego: Greenhaven, 1994. Pp. 216-2 19.

Sobell, M. B., and Sobell, L. C. Problem Drinkers: Guided Self-Change Treatment. New York: Guilford, 1993.

Trimpey, J. Rational Recovery is an Effective Self-Help Program. In: Barbour, S. (Ed.). Alcohol. San Diego: Greenhaven, 1998. Pp. 135-143.

Trimpey, J. AA's Focus on Spirituality Is Harmful and Unnecessary. In: Wekesser, C. (Ed.). Alcoholism. San Diego: Greenhaven, 1994. Pp. 82-92.

Trimpey, J. The Small Book: A Revolutionary Alternative for Overcoming Alcohol and Drug Dependence. New York: Delacorte, 1992.

Turk, M. For problem drinkers: A moderate proposal. Business Week, October 23, 1995.

Vogler, R. E., and Bartz, W. R. The Better Way to Drink: Moderation and Control of Problem Drinking. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1982.

Walsh, D. C., et al. Physicians' Warnings Can Motivate Alcoholics to Seek Treatment. In: Wekesser, C (Ed.). Alcoholism. San Diego: Greenhaven, 1994. Pp. 2 I I-2 15.

Weinstein, C. Forcing Alcoholic Prisoners to Join AA is Ineffective. In: Wekesser, C. (Ed.). Alcoholism. San Diego: Greenhaven, 1994. Pp. 104- 108.

Wright, B., and Wright, D. G. Due to Confront! How to Intervene When Someone You Care About Has an Alcohol or Drug Problem. New York: Master-Media, 1990.

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