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References

1. Except for several tribes in the Southwest, Native Americans did not have alcohol beverages before their introduction by Europeans in the 1600s. The Apache and Zuni drank alcoholic beverages which they produced for secular consumption, while the Pima and Papago produced alcohol for religious ceremonial consumption. Although Papago consumption was heavy, it was limited to a single peaceable annual ceremony and the drinking among other groups was also infrequent and not associated with any drinking problems (MacAndrew and Edgerton, 1969).

2. First Timothy 4:4; Matthew 15:11; Luke 7:33-35.

3. Tavern owners typically enjoyed high status in the community, as indicated by the early records of Harvard. There, where names of students were listed according to the social position of their fathers, tavern owner's sons preceded those of the clergy (Krout, 1925, p. 44).

4. "Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton saw the whiskey makers as a good potential source of revenue to pay the enormous debt inherited by the Young Republic. In 1791, Congress enacted an excise tax on distilled spirits, a tax that fell heavily on the mountain distillers of western Pennsylvania. The ensuing violence was known as the Pennsylvania Whiskey Rebellion" (Mendelson and Mello, 1985, p. 17).

5. One observer has noted that:

There are many senses of the word temperance. It is traditionally used to translate sophrosune, Aristotle's virtue of moderation in the sphere of food, drink and sex; a virtue which, like all Aristotle's moral virtues, lies between a vice of excess and one of deficiency. Again, there is the familiar narrow Victorian sense of the word, which applies only to alcohol and signifies not moderation but complete abstinence; through the process which philosophers call persuasive definition, the favourable connotations belonging to an emotive word of rather vague meaning became attached to a new, specific content (Telfer, 1990, p. 157).

6. Mrs. Hunt asserted in 1904 (p. 3) that such education was "now mandatory in the public schools of every state in the United States, and in all schools under Federal control." However, Billings (1903, p. 100) reported that Georgia was "the only State having no law on the subject" while Flanders (1925, p. 68) reported that "Idaho was then [1903] the only state where it [temperance instruction] was not prescribed." But Billings (1903, p. 100) presented section eight of the relevant act, which had become Idaho law in 1899.

7. A pamphlet prepared by the superintendent of Kansas' Scientific Temperance Instruction Department and sent to every public school teacher in that state asserted that they must impress upon their students the important fact, which she asserted had been established by science indisputably beyond question, "that the use of alcoholic beverage at all is an abuse of the human system in exactly the proportion to the amount taken" (Bader, 1986, p. 100, emphasis in original).

8. Not surprisingly, it would appear that many teachers resented this intrusion into their professional autonomy. As one WCTU "compliance monitor" reported, "None of [them] have taken very kindly to the new departure of being watched, questioned or advised by their constituents" (Zimmerman, 1992, p. 20).

9. Sinclair (1962, p. 425) noted that:

Even toddlers in Sunday schools were not exempt from warnings about the connection of alcohol and venereal diseases. Mrs. Wilbur F. Crafts, in her "Blackboard Temperance Lessons," suggested that a Temperance Knight be drawn on the blackboard, armored with various protections against the assaults of King Alcohol. When referring to the piece of armor which covered the knight's private parts, the teacher was to say, "King Alcohol has killed off a lot of people by wounding them in the part of the body that I have covered with the waist piece."

10. One can only speculate as to what may have passed for science at the American Temperance University, which existed for a time in the dry town of Harrisman, Tennessee (Fumas, 1965, p. 325).

11. The American Alcohol Education Association would later teach that alcohol is a "protoplasm poison" (Fumas, 1965, p. 317), a description that was apparently seen as sounding more scientific.

12. More specifically, the seven publishers agreed to amend their texts on the condition that Mrs. Hunt would revise them or supervise their revision. While she claimed that she never took money for a book endorsement, "she considered it only right that she be compensated for the labor necessary to bring an 'imperfect' book up to her particular scientific and pedagogical standards" (Pauly, 1990, p. 373). Significantly reflecting her character was the fact that:

In order to deal with the accusation that she profited from reform, she signed over to charity the royalties due her on the thousands of physiology textbooks sold annually. Yet she believed that philanthropy began at home; her never-publicized beneficiary was the Scientific Temperance Association, a group composed of Hunt, her pastor, and a few friends. The association used its funds to support the operations of the national headquarters of the WCTU's Department of Scientific Temperance Instruction, a large house in Boston that was also Hunt's residence. (Pauly, 1990, p. 373)

13. With the institution of prohibition in 1920, the WCTU enlarged its Scientific Temperance Instruction campaign even more because of its fear that not enough people were convinced of the evil of alcohol (Ormond, 1929, p. 11).

14. Prohibition was similarly ineffective and counterproductive in Russia (1916-1917), Finland (1919-1932), Iceland (1919-1932) (Ewing and Rouse, 1976, p. 27), Belgium, England, Norway, Austria (Mendelson and Mello, 1985, p. 83), and elsewhere around the world (Heath, 1987, p. 46; Marshall, 1979,456). Cross-culture evidence suggests that "The only 'prohibition' against alcohol consumption that seems to work in human society is that taken on voluntarily by the drinker himself (Marshall, 1979, p. 456, emphasis in original).

15. Levine (1985) suggested that Rockefeller contributed over $700,000 to the Anti- Saloon League between 1900 and 1919 while Thomton (1991, p. 52) wrote that "unsubstantiated claims place that figure in the tens of millions of dollars." However, even the $350,000 figure represented an enormous sum of money during the early part of the century, when the typical head of a household earned $9 to $12 per week (Ziegler et al., 1911,p. 61).

16. The tactics of the new prohibition movement were described in detail at the time (Lee, 1944).

Readings

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Billings, John S. Physiological Aspects of the Liquor Problem: Investigations Made by and Under the Direction of John 0. Atwater, John S. Billings and Others. Sub-Committee of the Committee of Fifty to Investigate the Liquor Problem. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, 1903.

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