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1. Retsinas, J. Decision to cut off U.S. aid to D.A.R.E. Hailed. Providence Business News, 2001, 15(47), 5B.

2. A Different Look at DARE. (http://drcnet.org/DARE)

3. Laugesen, W. The dire consequences of DARE. Boulder Weekly, 12-4-98.

4. Laugesen, W. The dire consequences of DARE. Boulder Weekly, 12-4-98.

5. Laugesen, W. The dire consequences of DARE. Boulder Weekly, 12-4-98.

6. Sullum, J. Constant improvement: The secret to DARE’s success. Reason, 2002, 34(6), 11. Of course, the “improvements” have all turned out to be nothing but ineffective changes.

7. Sullum, J. DARE aware. Reason, 2001, 32(8), 14.

8. DARE checks into rehab. Newsweek, 2001 (February 26), 56.


A Different Look at D.A.R.E. (www.drcnet.org/DARE/index.html)

Family Council on Drug Awareness (www.fcda.org/dare.htnl)

The Drug War on Our Children (www.sumeria.net/politics/drugwar2.html)

Johnson-Spence, J., Kirtz, E., & Lerner-Kinglake,J. D.A.R.E Bibliography. April 2003.

Anderson, Ross C. What it was like to drop the DARE program. The Reconsider Quarterly. 1(4) (Winter 2001-2002): 12-13.

Barnard, N. Pupils “brainwashed” by U.S. Drugs project. (DARE) Times Educational Supplement, 1997 (December 26), p. A3.

Beck, Jerome. 100 years of “Just Say No” versus “Just Say Know”: Reevaluating drug education goals for the coming century. Evaluation Review. 22(1) (1998): 15-45.

Becker, H.K., et al. Impact evaluation of Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE). Journal of Drug Education. 22(4) (1992): 283-291.

Boles L. DARE to say no to drugs: Law enforcement takes on a new role - teaching. Adolescent Counselor Magazine. 1(4) (1988): 39-42.

Brown, Joel H. Listen to the kids: When it comes to drug education, students confirm what research says. American School Board Journal. 184 (1997): 3 pp.

Brown, J. H. and J. E. Horowitz. Deviance and deviants: Why adolescent substance use prevention programs do not work. Evaluation Review. 17(5) (1993): 529-555.

Brown, Joel H., and Ita G. G. Kreft. Zero effects of drug prevention programs: Issues and solutions. Evaluation Review. 22(1) (1998): 3-14.

Burlington, VT. ends D.A.R.E. program. Alcoholism & Drug Abuse Weekly, 11(22), (May, 1999), 8.

Calif. district: DARE can be voluntary. Alcoholism & Drug Abuse Weekly, 11(33), (August, 1999),8.

Carter, David L. and U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Assistance. Community Policing and D.A.R.E.: A Practioner‘s Perspective. (1995): 8 pp.

Caulkins, Jonathan P., et al. An Ounce of Prevention, a Pound of Uncertainty: The Cost-Effectiveness of School-Based Drug Prevention Programs. (1999), 194 pp.

Center for Educational Research and Development (CERD). "http://www.cerd.org/". 4 April 2003.

Clayton, R.R., et al. The effectiveness of Drug Abuse Resistance Education (Project DARE): 5-year follow-up results. Preventive Medicine. 25(3) (1996): 307-318.

Cohn, J. Drug education: the triumph of bad science. Rolling Stone 869, (2001), 41- 43.

Cunningham, R.P. Editor’s deadline changes to DARE piece stirs trouble. The Quill, 1994(May), 82(4), 12-13. (Reports on DARE’s apparent ability to influence the content of an article about the organization by using aggressive tactics)

DARE: Doubt after 10 years. Harvard Mental Health Letter, 2000 (August), 17(2).

DARE checks into rehab. Newsweek, 2001 (February 26), 56.

D.A.R.E. files libel suit over critical magazine article. Alcoholism & Drug Abuse Weekly, 1999 (February 15), 11(7), 4.

D.A.R.E. (Drug Abuse Resistance Education). "http://www.dare.com/". 4 April 2003.

D'Emidio-Caston, Marianne and Joel H. Brown. The other side of the story: Student narratives on the California drug, alcohol, and tobacco education programs. Evaluation Review. 22(1) (1998): 95-117.

DeJong, W. A short-term evaluation of project DARE (Drug Abuse Resistance Education). Journal of Drug Education. 17(4) (1987): 279-94.

Donnermeyer, Joseph F. Educator perceptions of the D.A.R.E. officer. Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education. 44(1) (1998): 1-17.

Donnermeyer, Joseph F. and Russell R. Davis. Cumulative effects of prevention education on substance use among 11th grade students in Ohio. Journal of School Health. 68(4) (1998): 151-158.

Douglass Fyr, James. The dark side of DARE. Village Voice. 29 July 1993.

Doubtful DARE. Harvard Mental Health Letter, 1995 (March), 11(9), 7.

Dukes, Richard L., et al. Long-term impact of Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE): Results of a 6-year follow-up. Evaluation Review. 21(4) (1997): 483-500.

Dukes, Richard L., et al. A Three-year follow-up of Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.). Evaluation Review 20(1) (1996): 49-66.

Dukes Richard L., et al. An evaluation of D.A.R.E. (Drug Abuse Resistance Education), using a Solomon four-group design with latent variables. Evaluation Review. 19(3) 1995:409-435.

Drug education program (DARE) fails in Houston. Society, 1999, 36(2), 3-4.

Drug Strategies. Making the grade: A guide to school drug prevention programs. (1999): 44 pp.

Elliot, Jeff. Drug prevention placebo: How DARE wastes time, money, and police. Reason. (March 1995): 14-21.

Elliott, J. Just say nonsense. Washington Monthly, 1993, 25(5), 18-21.

Elliott, J. Drug prevention placebo: How DARE wastes time, money, and police. Reason, 1995 (March), 26(10), 14-21.

Ennett, S., et al. Long-term evaluation of drug abuse resistance education . Addictive Behaviors. 19 (1994): 113-125.

Ennett, S.T., et al. How effective is Drug Abuse Resistance Education? A meta-analysis of Project DARE outcome evaluations. American Journal of Public Health, 1994, 84(9), 1394-1411.

Ennett, S., et al. A comparison of current practice in school-based substance use prevention programs with meta-analysis findings. Prevention Science. 4(1) (2003): 1-14

Eyle, Alexandra. A guide to shopping for drug education programs. The Reconsider Quarterly. 1(4) (2001-2002): 4-5, 11.

GAO literature review reiterates ineffectiveness of original D.A.R.E. Alcoholism & Drug Abuse Weekly, 2003, 15(4), 1-3.

Gorman, D.M. The effectiveness of DARE and other drug use prevention programs. American Journal of Public Health 85(6) (1995): 873-874.

Gorman, D.M. The irrelevance of evidence in the development of school-based drug prevention policy, 1986-1996. Evaluation Review. 22(1) (1998): 118-146.

Gottfredson, Denise C. and David B. Wilson. Characteristics of effective school-based substance abuse prevention. Prevention Science. 4(1) (2003): 27-38.

Hallfors, Denise, et al. Drug Free Schools Survey: Report of Results. School of Public Health, University of North Carolina. (2000): 23 p.

Hansen, W.B. Pilot test results comparing the All Stars program with seventh grade D.A.R.E. Substance Use and Misuse. 31(10) (1996):1359-1377.

Hansen, W.B. and R.B. McNeal. How D.A.R.E. works: An examination of program effects on mediating variables. Health Education and Behavior. 24(2) (1997): 165-176.

Harmon, Michele Alicia. Reducing the risk of drug involvement among early adolescents: An evaluation of Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE). Evaluation Review. 17(2) (1993):221-239.

Harris, Stephaan. Schools' anti-drug message fails to last. USA Today. 2 Aug. 1999.

Johnson, D. Second thoughts on cops in class. (Effectiveness of Drug Abuse Resistance Education program in public schools is questioned) New York Times, 1998 (September 27), 148(4), WK3.

Kochis, D.S. The effectiveness of Project DARE: Does it work? Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education. 40(2) (1995): 40-47.

Kreft, Ita G. G. An illustration of item homogeneity scaling and multilevel analysis techniques in the evaluation of drug prevention programs. Evaluation Review. 22(1) (1998): 46-77.

Lindstrom, P. and R. Svensson Attitudes toward drugs among school youths: An evaluation of the Swedish DARE programme. Nordic Studies of Alcohol and Drugs. [English Suppl] 15: (1998):7-23.

Lord, M. Truth or D.A.R.E. U.S. News & World Report, 2001, 138(8), 30.

Lynam, D.R., et al. Project DARE: No effects at 10-year follow-up. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1999, 67(4), 590-593.

Marx, E. and W. DeJong. An invitation to Project DARE: Drug Abuse Resistance Education: Program brief. U.S. Dept. of Justice. (1988): 10 pp.

McNeal, R.B. and W. B. Hansen. An examination of strategies for gaining convergent validity in natural experiments: DARE as an illustrative study. Evaluation Review. 19(2) (1995): 141-158.

Miller, D.W. DARE reinvents itself - with help from its social-scientist critics: changes spurred by threat to cut federal financing of popular drug-prevention program. The Chronicle of Higher education, 2001, 48(8), A12-14.

Minneapolis discontinues schools’ D.A.R.E. effort. Alcoholism & Drug Abuse Weekly, 1999, 11(46), 8.

Moilanen, Renee. Just say no again: The old failures of new and improved anti-drug education. Reason. 2004. 16 pp.

Monroe, S. D.A.R.E. bedeviled. Time, 1994 (October 17), 144(16), 49.

Norland, S., et al. Teacher’s Use of and Perception of a Drug Curriculum. Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education. 40(2) (1999): 100-111.

Palumbo, D.J. and J.L. Ferguson. Evaluating gang resistance education and training (GREAT): Is the impact the same as that of Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE)? Evaluation Review. 19(6) (1995): 597-619.

Perry, Cheryl L., et al. A randomized controlled trial of the middle and junior high school D.A.R.E. and D.A.R.E Plus programs. Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine.157 (2003): 178-184.

Perry, Cheryl L., et al. The Minnesota DARE PLUS Project: Creating community partnerships to prevent drug use and violence. Journal of School Health. 70(3) (2000): 84-88.

Research Triangle Institute. Past and Future Directions of the DARE Program: An Evaluation Reviews. (1994).

Retsinas, J. Decision to cut off U.S. aid to D.A.R.E. hailed. Providence Business News, 2001, 15(47), 5B.

Rindskopf, David and Leonard Saxe. Zero effects in substance abuse programs: Avoiding false positives and false negatives in the evaluation of community-based programs. Evaluation Review. 22(1) (1998): 78-94.

Ringwalt, Christopher, et al. An outcome evaluation of Project DARE. Health Education Research. 6(3) (1991): 327-337.

Ringwalt, Christopher, et al. The prevalence of effective substance use prevention curricula in U.S. middle schools. Prevention Science. 3(4) (2002): 257-265.

Rosenbaum, Dennis P. and Gordon S. Hanson.Assessing the effects of school-based education: A six-year multilevel analysis of Project D.A.R.E. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency. 35(4) (1998): 381-412.

Rosenbaum, Dennis, et al. Cops in the classroom: A longitudinal evaluation of Drug Resistance Education (DARE). Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency. 31(1) (1994): 3-31.

Rothstein, R. Reality check is overdue in preventing drug abuse. (DARE) New York Times, 2000 (September 27), A19.

Shepard, Edward M. The Economic Costs of D.A.R.E. Le Moyne College: Institute of Industrial Relations, Research Paper Number 22. (September 2001): 20pp.

Shepard, Edward M. We wasted billions on D.A.R.E. The Reconsider Quarterly. 1(4) (Winter 2001-2002): 6-11.

Silvia, R.K. Evaluation of Idaho’s DARE "Drug Abuse Resistance Education Projects." Idaho State Dept. of Law Enforcement. (1994): various pp.

Skager, Rodney. Why not 'DARE' to try harm reduction in prevention. Prevention File. (2001): 12-14.

Sullum, J. DARE aware. Reason, 2001, 32(8), 14.

Sullum, J. Constant improvement: the secret to DARE’s success. Reason, 2002, 34(6), 11. (By constantly changing, DARE always argues that any evaluation is “outdated.”)

Szalavitz, M. Truth or. A.R.E.: How a widely discredited drug program snuck its way into New York City schools. New York, 1998 (May 11), 31(18), 15-16.

The Truth about “DARE.” Consumers’ Research Magazine, 2003, 86(3), 40-41.

Thombs, T.L. A retrospective study of DARE: Substantive effects not detected in undergraduates. Journal of American College Health, 2002, 51(2), 92.

Tobler, Nancy and Howard H. Stratton. Effectiveness of school-based drug prevention programs: A meta-analysis of the research. Journal of Primary Prevention. 18 (1997): 71-128.

U.S. Bureau of Justice Assistance. An Introduction to DARE: Drug Abuse Resistance Education. (1991): 14 pp.

U.S. Bureau of Justice Assistance. An Introduction to the National D.A.R.E. Parent Program: Program Brief. (1993): 24 pp.

U. S. General Accounting Office (GAO) Youth Illicit Drug Use Prevention: DARE Long-Term Evaluation and Federal Efforts to Identify Effective Programs. (January 2003): 20pp.

U. S. Department of Justice. The DARE Program: A Review of Prevalence, User Satisfaction, and Effectiveness. (October 1994):2pp.

Vastag, B. GAO: DARE does not work. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association, 2003, 289(5), 539.

Walsh, Thomas T. Review of Existing DARE Evaluations. Undated. 4 April 2003.

Wysong, E., et al. Truth and DARE: Tracking drug education to graduation and as symbolic politics. Social Problems. 41 (1994): 448-472.

Zagumny, M.J. and M.K. Thompson. Does D.A.R.E. Work? An evaluation in rural Tennessee. Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education. 42(2) (1997):32-41.

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