KKK and WCTU: Partners in Prohibition

The Ku Klux Klan (KKK) and Woman's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) shared a common interest in promoting and defending alcohol prohibition, women's suffrage, Protestantism, and the protection of domesticity. They also both shared hostility toward immigrants. For this reason, the two groups cooperated with each other and shared many members and leaders.

The temperance goals of the WCTU are widely known but those of the KKK are not. However, one of the major supporters of National Prohibition of alcohol in the U.S. (1920-1933) was the anti-alcohol Ku Klux Klan (KKK).

Membership in the KKK was limited to males. Women joined the Women of the KKK (WKKK). Lulu Markwell, one of the first leaders of the national WKKK organization based in Little Rock, headed the Arkansas chapter of the WCTU for twenty years. Lillian Sedwick served as state superintendent and county director of the young people's branch of the WCTU. She later became an important WKKK leader and other women followed the same path. They included Myrtle Cook of Iowa, a member of the WCTU murdered for documenting the names of bootleggers, and Lillian Rouse of the WCTU and its young people's affiliate,7 who later joined Sedwick in the WKKK Indiana affiliate. Elizabeth Tyler, one of the first leaders of the WKKK, was also active in the Anti-Saloon League.21

Daisy Douglas Barr was the Imperial Empress (leader) of the approximately 250,000 member WKKK in Indiana and seven other states in the early 1920s. Indiana itself was the major center of the KKK power, with about 25% of the total national membership. Barr, along with the Indiana KKK's "Grand Wizard," D.C. Stevenson, was considered responsible for electing a Klan-friendly governor in 1924.

In addition to her leadership in the WKKK, Barr was a powerful member of the WCTU. In her role in that organization, Daisy Barr was a famous crusader for temperance. As a member of the board of education in Indianapolis, she promoted racial segregation. Professionally, Barr was a Quaker minister in two prominent churches and highly respected.

KKK Facts 24

  • The Constitution and Laws of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan prohibited drunkenness or being in an intoxicated condition as an offense against the Klan.
  • The KKK promoted women's suffrage in the belief that womens' voting would promote its agenda.
  • Klan membership exceeded four million at its height in the mid-1920s, with more than a million in Indiana alone. Indiana was the center of KKK influence and power although Ohio had a larger membership.
  • The Klan tried to organize "colored divisions" in Indiana and other states.

The Klan made large financial donations to the WCTU in many communities. Similarly, the WCTU often lent its support to the Klan's anti-alcohol activities. 22

As unofficial law enforcement officers, members of the KKK would often enforce prohibition laws. In many cases members engaged in entrapment of buyers and sellers of alcohol and illegally collected evidence to prosecute the offenders. These illegal tactics made the enforcement by the Klan particularly effective. The WCTU recognized and supported the vigilante law enforcement efforts of the KKK. In towns and cities where the Klan was unpopular, the WCTU continued to support the group because of its effectiveness in law enforcement and conviction of bootleggers and moonshiners, despite the intimidation and violence used in the investigations.23 In effect, the WCTU was an accessory to the Klan's illegal activities.

It's clear that the KKK and the WCTU worked hand-in-glove to promote prohibition.

 

Readings on KKK Activity by Geographic Location:

  • Alabama
  • Feldman, Glenn. Politics, Society, and the Klan in Alabama, 1915-1949. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press, 1999.
  • Feldman, Glenn. The Ku Klux Klan in Alabama, 1915-1954. Ph.D. dissertation, Auburn University, 1996.
  • Arizona
  • Abbey, Sue Wilson. The Ku Klux Klan in Arizona, 1921-1925. Arizona State University, May, 1971. OCLC #26989490
  • Baker, Teresa. The Ku Klux Klan in Phoenix, 1921-1924. Honors thesis, University of Arizona, 1994. OCLC #37021614
  • Ku Klux Klan. Realm of Arizona. Ku Klux Klan Collection, 1924-1925. Archival material. Miscellaneous correspondence and records of the Ku Klux Klan in Arizona 1924-1925. OCLC #56715812
  • Ku Klux Klan. Yuma County Chapter. Ku Klux Klan Collection, 1921-1930. Archival material. Correspondence, Klan publications, completed applications for membership, and forms used by the Yuma County Chapter of the Ku Klux Klan. Also present is a catalog of official robes and banners; a brief history of the Klan formation and history in western Arizona. OCLC #37857361
  • Arkansas
  • Johnson, Ben. John Barleycorn Must die! The War Against Drink in Arkansas: 1920-1950. Little rock, AR. Old State House Museum exhibit (oldstatehouse.com/ exhibits/archive/ john-barleycorn/default.asp) and (oldstatehouse.com/ exhibits/archive/john-barleycorn/ 1920-1950.asp).
  • California
  • Sacramento County Historical Society. The Ku Klux Klan in Sacramento, 1922. Sacramento, Calif. : Sacramento County Historical Society, 1981. Golden Notes, v. 7, No. 2. OCLC #49789825
  • Cocoltchos, Christopher N. The Invisible Government and the Visible Community: The Ku Klux Klan in Orange County, California, During the 1920s. Los Angeles, CA: University of California at Los Angeles, Ph.D. dissertation, 1979.
  • The 1920s: An active Ku Klux Klan raises fear. Santa Cruz Sentinel on-line edition. (santacruzsentinel.com/extra/century/25/indix.html)
  • Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of California. California Klan news. Fallbrook, CA: Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of California. Newspaper. OCLC # 14148607
  • Ku Klux Klan. Fresno Klan No. 2. Fresno Ku Klux Klan state wide fiesta and public ceremonial, Fresno County Fair Grounds, May 17th to 28th under auspices of Fresno Klan No. 2. Fresno, CA: The Klan, 1919. OCLC #50104301
  • Ku Klux Klan. California Knights. The Klan in action; a manuel [sic] of leadership and organization for officers of local Klan committees. 192? OCLC #19101645
  • Ku Klux Klan. Ku Klux Klan records, 1922-1942. Correspondence, newspapers, pamphlets and ephemera pertaining chiefly to Klan activities in the Realm of California. Includes the Oath of allegiance and Constitution. OCLC #16666410
  • Ku Klux Klan. Ku Klux Klan records, 1922-1942. Correspondence, newspapers, pamphlets and ephemera pertaining chiefly to Klan activities in the Realm of California. Includes the Oath of allegiance and Constitution. OCLC #16666410
  • Ku Klux Klan. Constitution of the California Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. 192? OCLC #14820409
  • Ku Klux Klan. Do you know that the Ku Klux Klan is organized in San San Francisco: Ku Klux Klan, 192-? OCLC #54887904
  • Canada
  • Sher, Julian. White Hoods : Canada's Ku Klux Klan. Vancouver : New Star Books, 1983.
  • Canadian Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. Canadian KKK Action. New Westminster, B.C. : Canadian Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. Newspaper. OCLC #14758423
  • Baergen, William P. The Ku Klux Klan in central Alberta. Red Deer, Alta.: Central Alberta Historical Society, 2000. ISBN 0929123107 9780929123103
  • Robin, Martin. Shades of Right : Nativist and Fascist Politics in Canada, 1920-1940. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1992.
  • Ku Klux Klan of Canada. Kloran / Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of Kanada. Toronto : The Klan, 1925. OCLC #607050551
  • Ku Klux Klan of Canada. Manual of the Order of Citizenship, Invisible Empire Knights and Ladies of the Ku Klux Klan of Canada. Toronto : The Klan, 1927. OCLC #607050567
  • Cities
  • Jackson, Kenneth T. The Ku Klux Klan in the City 1915-1930. New York: Oxford University Press, 1967.
  • Colorado
  • Casey, Lee. When the Klan controlled Colorado. Rocky Mountain News, 1946. (June 17-19).
  • Goldberg, Robert A. Hooded Empire : the Ku Klux Klan in Colorado. Urbana : University of Illinois Press, 1981.
  • Gunn, LaDonna. The Protestant "Kluxing" of Canon City, Colorado. Canon City, CO: Canon City Public Library (http:// ccpl.lib.co.us/KKK/KKK%20Essay.html)
  • Norberg, David. Klu Klux Klan in the Valley: A 1920's Phenomenon. Quillen, Ed. Welcome to Kolorado, Klan Kountry: When the Invisible Empire ran the state, only one major city escaped - Colorado Springs News, May 22-28, 2003 (http:// www.csindy.com/csindy/2003-05-22/cover.html)
  • Norberg, David. Ku Klux Klan in the Valley: A 1920s Phenomenon. White River Journal, January, 2004.
  • Carter, Carrol J. Adams and the Ku Klux Klan. Alamosa, CO: Adams State College, Div. Arts and Letters, Dept. of Government, 1980. OCLC #14152614
  • Ku Klux Klan collection, [192-]. Miscellaneous collection relating to Klan activities in Colorado during the 1920's. OCLC #18510666
  • Connecticut
  • Ku Klux Klan. Pamphlets. Collection of pamphlets, brochures, application forms, etc., 1920-1929. OCLC # 36804745
  • Delaware
  • Ku Klux Klan. Imperial palace, invisible empire : Knights of the Ku Klux Klan incorporated ... do issue this Charter honor ... New Castle, DE : Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, 1926. Charter for the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, New Castle, Delaware, September 28, 1926. Officers are listed. OCLC #54354061
  • Ku Klux Klan. Imperial palace, invisible empire : Knights of the Ku Klux Klan incorporated ... do issue this Charter ... Delmar, DE : Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, 1922. Klan of the Order under the name and number of Delmar Klan No. 2, Realm of Delaware ... A charter for the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, Delmar, Delaware, August, 5, 1922. Officers are listed. OCLC #54353149
  • District of Columbia
  • Women of the Ku Klux Klan. Constitution of the Women of the Ku Klux Klan, accepted and adopted June 2nd, 1923, at Washington, D.C. Little Rock, AR: Parke-Harper Pub. Co., 1924? OCLC #123247504
  • Florida
  • Newton, Michael. The Invisible Empire: The Ku Klux Klan in Florida. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida Press, 2001.
  • Romer, Gleason Waite. Progress Week parade : the K.K.K. on parade, 1926. Photograph. Black and white photograph showing robed Ku Klux Klan marching down center of street, crowd lining street on both sides; KKK member in front holding 'altered' flag, another member holds a cross. Reference print #71 in Romer's Miami exhibit catalog, Miami-Dade Public Library System Main branch grand opening, July 1985. OCLC # 191825347
  • Georgia
  • Hux, Roger K. The Ku Klux Klan in Macon, 1919-1925. Georgia Historical Quarterly, 1978, 62, 155-168.
  • Moseley, Clement C. Political influence of the Ku Klux Klan in Georgia, 1915-1925. Georgia Historical Quarterly, 1973, 57, 235-255.
  • Ku Klux Klan. Athens Klan #5. Athens Klan #5 records, 1921-1930. Archival material : OCLC #38476235
  • Ku Klux Klan. Georgia. Office of the Grand Dragon. Official document. Atlanta, GA. Journal (April, 1927) OCLC #17819416
  • Ku Klux Klan. Georgia. Klorero. Minutes. Atlanta, GA. OCLC #17819440
  • Poole, Jerry D. Atlanta Protestants and the Second Ku Klux Klan. M.A. thesis. Georgia State University. 1975.
  • Akin, Edward P. The Ku Klux Klan in Georgia : Social change and conflict, 1915-1930. Ph.D. dissertation. University of California, 1994.
  • Ku Klux Klan in Georgia, 1920s-1930s. Archival material relating to the KKK in Lithonia, Georgia. OCLC #426209637
  • Hux, Roger K. The Ku Klux Klan in Macon, 1922-1925. M.A. thesis. University of Georgia, 1972.
  • Idaho
  • Ku Klux Klan. Realm of Idaho. Western Recorder. Payette, ID: Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, Realm of Idaho. Newspaper. OCLC #13150022
  • Illinois
  • Ku Klux Klan. Carlock Unit No. 71. Ku Klux Klan Carlock Unit No. 71 (Carlock, IL) records, 1924-1925. The collection consists of the records of the Carlock Unit No. 71 of the Ku Klux Klan from 1924-1925. The records include minutes, correspondence, and Kligrapp reports. OCLC #79463270
  • Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of Illinois. Miscellaneous publications. Villa, IL. OCLC #17576452
  • Clemens, Terri L. Kluxing in Korn Kountry : the 1920s Ku Klux Klan in Central Illinois. M.S. thesis. Illinois State University, 2005.
  • Ku Klux Klan. The Illinois Kourier. Newspaper.Chicago, IL: Empire Pub. Co.,1924- OCLC #27358141
  • Ku Klux Klan. Illinois Fiery Cross. Newspaper. Chicago, IL: Empire Pub. Co, 1924. OCLC # 27358061
  • Ku Klux Klan. Illinois. Dawn the Herald of a New and Better Day. Newspaper. Chicago: Dawn Pub. Co. OCLC #18536928
  • Ku Klux Klan. Champaign-Urbana Chapter. Financial records of the Ku Klux Klan of Champaign and Urbana, Illinois.1924-1926. OCLC #53826828
  • Ayabe, Masatomo. The Ku Klux Klan movement in Williamson County, Illinois, 1923-1926. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2005.
  • Indiana
  • Bentley, Max. The Ku Klux Klan in Indiana. McClure's Magazine, 1924 (May), 58.
  • Moore, Leonard. Citizen Klansmen: The Ku Klux Klan in Indiana, 1921-1928. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1991.
  • Weaver, Norman F. The Knights of the Ku Klux Klan in Wisconsin, Indiana, Ohio and Michigan. Northwestern University, Ph.D. dissertation, 1986.
  • Lutholtz, M. William. Grand Dragon : D.C. Stephenson and the Ku Klux Klan in Indiana. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press, 1991.
  • Ku Klux Klan. Realm of Indiana. Ku Klux Klan officers, Indiana records, 1925. Archival material consisting of a typewritten list of local Ku Klux Klan officers in Indiana in 1925. The list is organized by county and gives names and titles of officers, headquarters and meeting information, total number of members, and political sympathies of local elected officials. OCLC #30407147
  • Ku Klux Klan. Indianapolis Chapter. Ku Klux Klan, Indiana, ledger, 1924. A 929 page membership ledger of Klan members in Indianapolis, Acton, Wanamaker, Crawfordsville and other Indiana locations whose last names begin with the letter S-Z for the year 1924. OCLC #192095831
  • Ku Klux Klan. Realm of Indiana. Why the Ku Klux Klan opposed the World. Court. c.1920. OCLC #32377806
  • Ku Klux Klan. In the matter of the charges and specifications against Klansman David Curtis Stephenson involving a major offense trial before tribunal in the Klavern of Evansville Klan # 1, Realm of Indiana ; Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, June 23, 1924. OCLC # 476632716
  • Ku Klux Klan. Wayne County, IN. Records, 1916-1933. Archival collection that contains Klan membership and organizational records of the Whitewater Klan #60 located in Richmond, Indiana as well as minutes and other materials from the Fountain City Klan #3. OCLC #11117698
  • Ku Klux Klan. Whitewater Klan #60 (Richmond, IN) Records, 1916-1933. Chiefly records (1922-1927) relating to Klan membership in Wayne County, IN. OCLC #154691467
  • Ku Klux Klan. The Indiana Kourier. Washington, D.C. : Empire Pub. Co. Newspaper. Successor to the Fiery cross. OCLC # 11636710
  • Ku Klux Klan. Crown Point Klan #72 (Crown Point, IN. Records, 1915?-1933. The collection includes correspondence and printed material as well as financial, membership, and business records of the Ku Klux Klan, Crown Point Klan No. 72. OCLC # 48126476
  • Ku Klux Klan. Letters and papers, 1925.The collection contains two letters issued by the Marion County Ku Klux Klan #3, one invitation, and three duplicate "Official Protestant Clothes Pin Tickets." One letter is an invitation to attend a meeting at Cadle Tabernacle, the other letter discusses recruitment of Junior KKK members. The tickets list candidates for mayor, city clerk, and councilmen for Marion County, Indiana. OCLC #78791392
  • Ku Klux Klan. LaPorte, IN (Chapter). Charter, 1925. The charter for the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, La Porte, Indiana, 30 July 1925. OCLC #34667220
  • Ku Klux Klan. Realm of Indiana. The Klansmen's oath. Indiana : Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, Realm of Indiana, 192-? OCLC #20661116
  • Ku Klux Klan. Realm of Indiana, No. 2. Special instructions. OCLC #20661116
  • Cates, Frank M. The Ku Klux Klan in Indiana, 1920-1925. Ph.D. dissertation. Indiana University, 1971.
  • Cook, J. Robert. Visible empire : the Ku Klux Klan in Indiana, 1921-1928. VHS video. 1998. OCLC #40824732
  • Bubois, Benjamin vs Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. In the United States court for the district of Indiana, in Equity no. ... Benjamin Dubois vs. Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. Patrick H. O'Donell, Joseph R. Roach, solicitors for the plaintiff. 1923. OCLC #183904107
  • Iowa
  • Neymeyer, Robert J. In the full light of day : the Ku Klux Klan in 1920's Palimpsest. Vol. 76, no. 2 (Summer 1995)
  • Ku Klux Klan. Iowa. The Hawkeye Independent : authorized newspaper, Knights and Women of Ku Klux Klan, Realm of Iowa.Des Moines, IA: Hawkeye Independent Pub. Co. OCLC #9304987
  • Pendelton, Charles E. Charles Edmund Pendleton papers, 1895-1976. Archival material that Includes material on KKK in Iowa. OCLC #58392992
  • Ku Klux Klan. Newspapers, 1924. Two issues of the Klan's Iowa newspaper, the Iowa Klan Kourier. OCLC #52973123
  • Schieder, D. A Farmer and the Ku Klux Klan in Northwest Iowa.
  • Des Moines, IA: Iowa State Historical Dept., Division of Historical Museum and Archives. Annals of Iowa, 61, Part 3 (2002), 286-320.
  • Kansas
  • Jones, Lila Lee. The Ku Klux Klan in Eastern Kansas during the 1920's. Emporia State Research Studies, 1975 (Winter), 23.
  • Better than Necessary: A Celebrational History of Shawnee Mission North High School (smn-rab.org/SMN-HIST/btn_20s.htm)
  • Jones, Richard E. The politics of the Ku Klux Klan in Kansas during the 1920s. M.A. thesis. Emporia State University, 2007.
  • Women of the Ku Klux Klan. Sunflower Klan No. 9 (Hutchinson, KS) Women of the Ku Klux Klan : Sunflower Klan no. 9 : incorporated, Hutchinson, KS. Hutchinson, KS : The Klan, 192-? OCLC #43804557
  • Jones, Lila L. The Ku Klux Klan in Eastern Kansas during the 1920's. Emporia : Emporia Kansas State College, 1975. Emporia State Research Studies, v. 23, no. 3.
  • Jones, Lila L. The Ku Klux Klan in Eastern Kansas. M.A. thesis. Kansas State Teachers College of Emporia, 1972.
  • Kentucky
  • Luntz, Benjamin F. Forgotten Turmoil : the Southeastern Kentucky Ku Klux Klan. Philadelphia, PA: Xlibris, 2006.
  • Ku Klux Klan. Pond Creek Klan, No. 117 (KY). Pond Creek, Kentucky Ku Klux Klan membership roll, 1926-1928. OCLC #13566339
  • Ku Klux Klan. All day meeting K.K.K., Sunday, July 4th. : On Hardman-Muir Farm on Mt. Tabor Pike connecting Richmond and Tates Creek Pikes ... : 2:30 p.m. Patriotic address by Judge E.C. McDougal, of Richmond, Ky. ... Richmond, KY: KKK, 192-? OCLC #34339047
  • Ku Klux Klan. Big Western Kentucky K K K rally, Henderson, Ky., Saturday, June 12, 192-? OCLC #26185350
  • Ku Klux Klan. Henderson Kounty Klan No. 2 (Henderson County, KY) Broadside 30 May 1924. OCLC #60504353
  • Kirschenbaum, Robert. Klan and Commonwealth : the Ku Klux Klan and Politics in Kentucky, 1921-1928. M.A. thesis. University of Kentucky, 2005.
  • Louisiana
  • Harrell, Kenneth E. The Ku Klux Klan in Louisiana : 1920-1930. Ph.D. dissertation. Louisiana State University, 1966.
  • Ku Klux Klan. Baton rough No. 3. Ku Klux Klan Baton Rouge No. 3 records, 1928-1939. Correspondence, membership lists, printed items, financial and legal documents, and miscellaneous papers comprise this collection. OCLC #268677734
  • Maine
  • Ku Klux Klan. Ku Klux Klan collection, 1923-1977. Printed pamphlets, broadsides, flyers, circular letters, newspaper issues and clippings, and ephemera document Ku Klux Klan activities and platforms. Manuscript materials include minutes of a chapter in Presque Isle, Maine. OCLC #237798953
  • Richard, Mark P. "This is not a Catholic nation": the Ku Klux Klan confronts Franco-Americans in Maine. New England Quarterly, v. 28, no. 2 (2009).
  • Maryland
  • Ku Klux Klan. Mt, Ranier Klan No. 51 (Mt. Ranier, MD). Records of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, Klan No. 51, Mt. Rainier, Maryland, 1924-1965. Minutes and correspondence of Klan #51, Mt. Rainier, Maryland, publications concerning the Ku Klux Klan in Maryland and the United States, and a movie poster advertising "The Burning Cross." OCLC #20793865
  • Massachusetts
  • Painter, Nell I. Harvard University and the Ku Klux Klan, 1923. April 13, 1970. OCLC #228513358
  • Michigan
  • Weaver, Norman F. The Knights of the Ku Klux Klan in Wisconsin, Indiana, Ohio and Michigan. Northwestern University, Ph.D. dissertation, 1986.
  • Women of the Ku Klux Klan. Realm of Michigan. Wolverine Women. Periodical. Grand Rapids, MI: Women of the Ku Klux Klan, Realm of Michigan, 1928-. OCLC #38868025
  • Ku Klux Klan (Owosso, MI). Collection, 1926. Material includes a Special Bulletin of the Grand Dragon of the Klan of the Realm of Michigan, G.E. Carr. This printed (4 p.) newsletter from Owosso (Mich.), dated July 31, 1926, is subtitled "1926--the Klan's Biggest Fight", referring to the Michigan election of 1926. The Special Bulletin is illustrated with a sheeted nightrider. Also included is a LP record (and CD copy) of "the best in Klan Music." The music on Side A is entitled "the Gathering Klan" by Mayer, and on side B it is entitled "Daddy swiped our last clean sheet and joined the Ku Klux Klan" by Marcell. The songs were recorded by the "100% American Orchestra Association" and recorded by The American [recording company of] Indianapolis (Ind.). OCLC #42997201
  • Ku Klux Klan. Bay City Night Hawk. Newspaper. Bay City, MI. OCLC #40852491
  • Ku klux Klan. Newaygo County, MI) Membership cards, 1923,1926. OCLC #41321346
  • Ku Klux Klan. Miscellaneous Collection, 1924,1929. Includes membership cards from Belding (Mich.), 1927, 1929?, from Kalamazoo (Mich.), 1928, and Isabella County, undated; pamphlet entitled "The Spirit of the Crusades as Interpreted and Revived by the American Krusaders," membership certificate from Newaygo County, 1924. OCLC #41536809
  • Mitchell, Ted R. White Sheets over West Michigan : the Ku Klux Klan in Newaygo County, Michigan in the 1920s. Honors thesis. University of Michigan, 2000. OCLC #44617252
  • Ku Klux Klan. Ku Klux Klan, Newaygo County : membership cards 1923-1926. Mt. Pleasant, MI: Clarke Historical Library, Central Michigan University, 1993. OCLC #36420838
  • Midwest
  • Marszalek, John F. KKK: The 1920s Ku Klux Klan in the Midwest. Timeline, 1994 (March-April), 11(2).
  • Jacobs, Michael D. Catholic Response to the Ku Klux Klan in the Midwest, 1921-8. Ph.D. dissertation. Marquette University, 2001.
  • Tucker, Richard K. The Dragon and the Cross: The Rise and Fall of the Ku Klux Klan in Middle America. Hamden, CT: Archon, 1991.
  • Minnesota
  • Hatle, Elizabeth D. and Vaillancourt, Nancy. One flag, one school, one language : Minnesota's Ku Klux Klan in the 1920s. Minnesota History. v. 61, no. 8 (winter 2009/10).
  • Ku Klux Klan. North Star Klan No. 2, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. Voice of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. Newspaper. Minneapolis, MN, North Star Klan no. 2, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. OCLC #4671781
  • Ku Klux Klan. The Minnesota Fiery Cross. Newspaper. St. Paul, MN: Empire Pub. Co., 1924-
  • Taylor, Cathleen B. Midnight on the Knoll : Ku Klux Klan activity on the University of Minnesota campus, 1923-1925. 2001. OCLC #47872026
  • Mississippi
  • Newton, Michael. The Ku Klux Klan in Mississippi: A History. Jefferson, N.C. : McFarland & Co., 2010.
  • Ku Klux Klan. The kloran of the white knights of the Ku Klux Klan, realm of Mississippi. OCLC #227147497
  • Missouri
  • Women of the Ku Klux Klan. Constitution and laws of the Women of the Ku Klux klan, adopted by first Imperial Klonvocation at St. Louis, Missouri, on the sixth day of January, 1927. Little Rock, Ark., H.G. Pugh & Co., 1934.
  • Ku Klux Klan. Realm of Missouri. The Klan Kourier. Newspaper. St. Louis, MO: Gail S. Carter, 1924- OCLC #21091237
  • Ku Klux Klan. Realm of Missouri. The Patriot. Newspaper. St. Louis, MO: E.M. Crane. OCLC #21091206
  • Montana
  • Sturdevant, Anne M. The Montana Ku Klux Klan During the 1920s.M.A. thesis. Washington State University, 2001.
  • Ku Klux Klan. Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, Wheatland Klan No. 29 (Harlowton, Mont.) records, 1923-1928. Collection consists of two series, membership records and printed materials. The membership records consist of the "Membership and Dues Record" book and two membership transfer forms. The membership and dues forms are filed alphabetically by surname. The printed materials series consists of one pamphlet (n.d.) titled Ideals of the Ku Klux Klan. OCLC #70966611
  • New England
  • Minehan, Molly and Cathcart, Dolita. The New England Ku Klux Klan : independent study. Norton, MA : Wheaton College, 2004. OCLC #55892036
  • New Hampshire
  • Ku Klux Klan. K.K.K.K. : monster open air Klonklave, parade and fireworks : rain or shine, Brackett's Field, South Street, Portsmouth, N.H., Sept. 4 & 5, 1927. Portsmouth, NH: Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, 1927. OCLC #105537914
  • New Jersey
  • Ku Klux Klan. Realm of New Jersey. Office of the Grand Dragon. Official document. OCLC #173881510
  • New Mexico
  • Mechem, Merritt C. Governor Merritt C. Mechem papers, 1908-1925. Includes information on Ku Klux Klan activities in New Mexico. OCLC #37842197
  • Ku Klux Klan. Southwest Klansman. Dallas, TX: Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. Official regional publication for states including New Mexico. OCLC #25382324
  • New York
  • Behreus, David. The KKK flares up on LI: In the early 1920's, white robes and burning crosses are seen in many villages. Long Island: Our Story. Newsday.com/LIHistory.com
  • Ku Klux Klan. Records, 1925-1928. Archival material consisting of the Prattsville, New York Chapter records of the Knights and Women Ku Klux Klan. OCLC #122537049
  • Lay, Shawn. Hooded Knights on the Niagara: The Ku Klux Klan in Buffalo, New York. NY: New York University Press, 1995.
  • Ku Klux Klan. Knights & women of the Ku Klux Klan : Klorero, Elmira, N.Y., July 1-2-3-4-5, 1925. Ku Klux Klan, 1925. OCLC #2743596
  • Ku Klux Klan. New york Klan #260. Records, 1927-1928. Archival material OCLC #73692266
  • Ku Klux Klan. Klorero : Mineola, Long Island, [N.Y.], July 3-4-5-6, 1926. Ku Klux Klan, 1926. OCLC #43892048
  • Ku Klux Klan. Records, 1925-1927. A variety of material relating to a number of different local Klan groups. Represented are Klan groups at Walden, Prattsville, Catskill, Syracuse and Gloversville, N.Y. Records include publications, circular letters, minutes of meetings, correspondence, and other materials. OCLC #86164540
  • Ku Klux Klan. Ku Klux Klan Collection, 1922-1924. Materials relating to activities of the Klan in Binghamton and vicinity include certificates, a pamphlet, a broadside, a newspaper, photographs and a typed paper on the Ku Klux Klan in Binghamton, 1923-1928, based on original research. OCLC #155431979
  • North Carolina
  • Ku Klux Klan. Papers read at the meeting of Grand Dragons, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, at their first annual meeting held at Asheville, North Carolina, July, 1923; together with other articles of interest to Klansmen. Asheville, NC: 1923. OCLC #30445249
  • Keith, Ernest C. Congressional investigation of the Ku Klux Klan in North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi. M.A. thesis. University of North Dakota, 1933.
  • North Dakota
  • Ku Klux Klan. Grand Forks Klan No. 1, Grand Forks, ND. Voice of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan.Newspaper. Grand Forks, ND: Grand Forks Klan No. 1, Realm of North Dakota. OCLC #19317655
  • Ohio
  • Jenkins, William D. Steel Valley Clan: the Ku Klux Klan in Ohio's Mahoning Valley. Kent, OH: Ohio State University Press, 1990.
  • Jenkins, William D. The Ku Klux Klan in Youngstown, Ohio: Moral reform in the twenties. Historian, 1978 (November), 76-93.
  • Weaver, Norman F. The Knights of the Ku Klux Klan in Wisconsin, Indiana, Ohio and Michigan. Northwestern University, Ph.D. dissertation, 1986.
  • Ohio Knights of the Ku Klux Klan records: microfilom edition, 1923-1924. Ohio Knights of the Ku Klux Klan records : microfilm edition, 1923-1924. Records, 1923-1924, of Ohio Knights of the Ku Klux Klan include Imperial Klazik, Brown Harwood's outgoing correspondence regarding Ohio meetings and in-coming letters from Imperial Wizard, H.W. Evans regarding administration of the Ohio realm. Documents include instructions for membership and duties of committees; forms for bylaws, and procedures for naturalization ceremony; and list of county officers. OCLC #45912343
  • Ku Klux Klan. The Ohio Kourier. Newspaper. Dayton, OH: Empire Pub. Co., 1924- OCLC #15314212
  • McDermott, Frank E. and Papalas, Stephen. Niles Ku Klux Klan Riot of 1924. Oral History Project, 1982. OCLC #12299375
  • Davis, Mabel and Mercer, Bernice. Ku Klux Klan project. "KKK in Springfield Township." Transcript of interview taped on August 17, 1976. Youngstown State University. OCLC #17691052
  • Litty, John C. and Jenkins, William. Ku Klux Klan in Salem, Ohio. Youngstown State University. OCLC #26145682
  • Oklahoma
  • Clark, Blue. A history of the Ku Klux Klan in Oklahoma. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Oklahoma, 1976.
  • Oregon
  • Coulter, Thomas, et al. The Ku Klux Klan in Oregon, 1920-1923 : a documentary. DVD video. The Roaring 20s saw the emergence of the second generation of the Ku Klux Klan. Capitalizing on tits racial and political ideology, the group expanded its membership all across the United States, including the Pacific Northwest. Using archival photos and film clips, the documentary covers the KKK's storied career in Oregon and includes a history of the organization, from its humble beginnings in Tennessee after the Civil War, to its reformation in the early 20th century. Portland, OR: : Frame by Frame Productions, 2009. OCLC #535966757
  • Ku Klux Klan. Oregon Chapter No. 8 (Tillamook, OR). Ku Klux Klan, Tillamook, Oregon Chapter No. 8 records, 1922-1929. The Ku Klux Klan, Tillamook Chapter No. 8 was active from 1921 through 1938; its activities were mostly anti-Catholic and anti-Semitic. The collection contains correspondence, minutes, reports, membership lists and paraphernalia, financial records, an account ledger, and costume insignia. Included are some records pertaining to the Klan's Empire Mutual Life Insurance Company, a national organization. OCLC #52124365
  • Toy, Edward V. The Ku Klux Klan in Oregon: Its Program and Purpose. M.A. thesis. University of Oregon, 1959.
  • Loomis, Richard A. A narrative interpretation of the 1920s Ku Klux Klan in Oregon. Ph.D. dissertation. Fuller Theological Seminary, 2000.
  • Hadbury, Joan. The Ku Klux Klan in Jackson County (Oregon) OCLC #29020186
  • Catholic Truth Society of Oregon. The Ku Klux Klan. Portland, OR: Catholic Truth Society of Oregon, 192-? OCLC # 36231588
  • Pennsylvania
  • Loucks, Emerson H. The Ku Klux Klan in Pennsylvania: A Study in Nativism. Harrisburg, PA: Telegraph Press, 1936.
  • Ku Klux Klan. A Ku Klux Klan message to Pennsylvanians : beware of aliens. 1926. OCLC # 55717288
  • Ku Klux Klan. The Ku Klux Klan discloses its position on the Presidency : Realm of Pennsylvania. The Klan, 1928. OCLC #9069479
  • Fliss, Matt. The Ku Klux Klan in Luzerne County. Wilkes-Barre, PA: Wilkes College, 1971. OCLC #11050780
  • Ku Klux Klan. Philadelphia County Headquarters, No. 3.To the Klansmen of Philadelphia County. Philadelphia, PA: The Office, 1926. OCLC # 41470011
  • Kuhn, Andrew. The Ku Klux Klan in Lancaster County, PA. Journal of the Lancaster County Historical Society, v. 98, no. 3.
  • Rhode Island
  • Rhode Island. Adjunct General's Office. Report of adjutant general. The Adjutant General's Office ... March 20, 1928. Providence, RI: Adjunct General's Office, 1928. Report on alleged control of the First Light Infantry by the Ku Klux Klan. OCLC # 41654696
  • South Carolina
  • Ku Klux Klan. An Introduction to the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan.
  • Spartanburg, SC: 193-? OCLC #7630758
  • Ku Klux Klan. Why you should become a klansman. Spartanburg, SC: Invisible Empire K.K.K.K. State Office. OCLC #225093065
  • Ku Klux Klan. Photograph of Ku Klux Klan meeting : 191?. Photograph of Ku Klux Klan meeting at a house. OCLC #56772051
  • Ku Klux Klan. Simpsonville, SC: parade] : 191?. Photograph of parade in downtown Simpsonville, S.C. with small group of hooded Ku Klux Klan members marching, whites and African Americans watching. OCLC #55530541
  • Southwest
  • Alexander, Charles C. The Ku Klux Klan in the Southwest
  • Lexington, KY: University of Kentucky Press. 1965.
  • Ku Klux Klan. Southwest Klansman. Newspaper. Official regional publication for Texas-Arkansas-Louisiana-Oklahoma-Arizona-New Mexico. Dallas, TX: Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. Newspaper. OCLC #25382324
  • Tennessee
  • McKay, Eleanor and Dotson, Phyllis. Ku Klux Klan miscellaneous records, Tennessee, 1920-1968 : [guide to the records] Memphis, TN: Memphis State University, Mississippi Valley Collection,1982. OCLC #10151135
  • Sherrod, Isa L. The Ku Klux movement in Tennessee. M.A. thesis. George Peabody College for Teachers, 1935.
  • Kent, Anne P. The Ku Klux Klan in Tennessee. M.A. thesis. Knoxville] : University of Tennessee, 1935.
  • Ku KluxKlan. Knox County Klan No. 14 (Knoxville, TN). Ku Klux Klan No. 14 records, 1924-1925. Collection consists of the records of the Knox County Klan No. 14 during the years of its decline in the late 1920s. The records include proposed amendments and additions to by-laws, correspondence, financial records, petitions and applications for membership, membership and dues records, and memorabilia. Correspondence is between the Knoxville klavern and the Office of the Grand Dragon, Realm of Tennessee, and concerns the membership, parades, interchapter visits, and a few political matters. Records include a bank statement (1927-1928), a quarterly report (1928), recommended amendments to by-laws, and membership forms. Petitions and applications for citizenship [membership] in the Klan (1924-1927) contain personal information supplied by applicants. OCLC #173863142
  • Ku Klux Klan. Ku Klux Klan : records, 1924-1927. Included is an advertisement for a Klan picnic, 17 Aug. 1924, near Weddlesville (Ind.) School; a 10 Feb. 1925 letter from "The New Kligrapp" to Russell Bryant of Danville, Ky. stating that the Boyle County Klan has been chartered since 1924 and encourages regular attendance at meetings and immediate payment of dues; and a 30 June 1927 membership card issued to Edward Huckleberry of Jeffersonville, Ind., with instructions providing information regarding "Secret Work" and "The Tests" that Klan members should know. OCLC #46612880
  • Texas
  • Ballinger, Lacie. Ku Klux Klan in Fort Worth
  • Fort Worth, TX: The author, 1997. OCLC #441284848
  • Women of the Ku Klux Klan. Temple, Texas, May 28, 1925, K.I.G.Y.: it is very necessary that you carefully read this notice.Temple, TX: 1925. OCLC #54228770
  • Alexander, Charles C. Crusade for conformity: the Ku Klux Klan in Texas, 1920-1930. Houston, TX: Texas Gulf Coast Historical Association, 1962. Texas Gulf Coast Historical Association. Publication series, v. 6, no. 1. OCLC #490197
  • "Ku Klux Klan." Handbook of Texas Online (a joint project of the General Library of the University of Texas at Austin and the Texas Historical Association) (http:// www.tsha.utexas.edu/handbook/online/articles/KK/vek2_print.html)
  • Ku Klux Klan. Kountry Klub Klan No. 64, Realm of Texas of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan : convened in solemn assemblage in honor of our heroic and immortal dead : the lodge of sorrow. 1925. OCLC #54228538
  • Dallas County Citizen's League. The Ku Klux Klan. Denver : American Pub. Society, 1922. OCLC #17977353
  • Women of the Ku Klux Klan. Resolutions upon the death of Mrs. P.H. Benton, TX: 1925. OCLC #54228615
  • Ku Klux Klan. Texas. San Antonio Klan No. 31. Ku Klux special to Dallas : [letter, 1923 Oct. 5, San Antonio, to all Klansmen]. San Antonio, TX: 1923. OCLC # 26864988
  • Utah
  • Gerlach, Larry R. Blazing Crosses in Zion: The Ku Klux Klan in Utah. Logan, UT: Utah State University Press, 1982.
  • Vermont
  • Ku Klux Klan. America is in danger! : Ku Klux Klan lecture, Sunday, October 3rd at 7:30 p.m. at the Howe Farm on main road between Wells and Poultney. 1926. OCLC # ???????
  • Virginia
  • Ku Klux Klan. Realm of Virginia. Photograph of the R.E. Lee Ku Klux Klan convention, 1931 May 30-31. Photograph of a statewide convention of the Realm of Virginia R.E. Klan in Roanoke, Va., depicts Klaverns from around the state including York, Alexandria (#47), Lynchburg (#s 4 and11), Fairfax County (#2), Portsmouth (#5), Hopewell (#14), Ballston (#6), Richmond, and Women of the KKK Roanoke (#6). OCLC # ?????????????
  • Ku Klux Klan. Photograph of the Ballston KKK Klan No. 6, Realm of Virginia 1935. Photograph of the Ballston, Virginia, chapter of the local chapter of the Ku Klux Klan. OCLC # ???????
  • Ku Klux Klan. Realm of Virginia. Province No. 2. College of William and Mary. Program : flag presentation to the College of William and Mary by the Klansmen of Province No. 2, Realm of Virginia, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, Inc. : Williamsburg, Va. September 26, 1926. OCLC # ????
  • Ku Klux Klan. Realm of Virginia. Asu Klan No. 16. Asu Klan No. 16, Realm of Virginia, Knights of the Ku-Klux-Klan ... : pay-your-poll-tax!!! ... Portsmouth, VA: Asu Klan No. 16, 1922. OCLC #123286438
  • Ku Klux Klan. Realm of Virginia. United Klans of America. Save America!!: join United Klans, UKA : Klan rally, come hear the truth : good preaching, country music, Sun., Sept. 25, 4 p.m., rally rain or shine, the white public only, Moneta, Va. South Hill, VA: Virginia Realm, United Klans of America, 192-? OCLC #26865041
  • Ku Klux Klan. Realm of Virginia. Province No. 11. The awakening: program : a musical patriotic, dramatic spectacular extravaganza in 23 scenes with cast of 500 people. Lynchburg, VA : Lynchburg Klan No. 11, Real of Virginia, 192-? OCLC #38276863
  • Washington
  • Ku Klux Klan. Ku Klux Klan miscellany, ca. 1920-1925.
  • Two brochures about the Ku Klux Klan, blank application for Klan charter, donation receipt, introductory form letter, and two clippings from the Spokane Daily Chronicle, March 4 and 5, 1924. OCLC #297210231
  • Mayers, Gabriel S. The Ku Klux Klan in Bellingham, 1900-1935. Journal of the Whatcom County Historical Society, 2001. OCLC #49429979
  • Kuttel, Ryan. Preserving public morality : the Ku Klux Klan of Washington and their Anti-Catholic School Bill. Bellingham, WA: Ryan Kuttel, 2000. OCLC #47840663
  • West
  • Lay, Shawn (Ed.) The Invisible Empire in the West: Toward a New Historical Appraisal of the Ku Klux Klan of the 1920s. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1992.
  • West Virginia
  • Waugh, H. Roy. Instructions to the grand jury : delivered by Judge H. Roy Waugh at Buckhannon, W. Va. : Upshur County Circuit Court term commencing Sept. 4, 1923. Buckhannon, WV: 1923. OCLC #70913707
  • Ku Klux Klan. The National Kourier. Klan newspaper that served West Virginia. Washington, DC: Empire Pub. Co., 1925- OCLC #18796047
  • Wisconsin. Turcheneske, John A., Jr. The Ku Klux Klan in Northwestern Wisconsin. River Falls, WI: Wisconsin State University-River Falls, M.A. thesis, 1971.
  • Weaver, Norman F. The Knights of the Ku Klux Klan in Wisconsin, Indiana, Ohio and Michigan. Northwestern University, Ph.D. dissertation, 1986.
  • Turcheneske, John A. The Ku Klux Klan in Northwestern Wisconsin. M.A. thesis. Wisconsin State University, River Falls, 1971.
  • Hedberg Public Library (Janesville, WI). Ku Klux Klan: Janesville, Wisconsin. Janesville, WI: Hedberg Public Library, 1992- OCLC #74557347
  • Women of the Ku Klux Klan. Klan 14 (Chippewa Falls, WI). Records, 1926-1931. Photocopies of records of a chapter of the Women of the Ku Klux Klan consisting of minutes, financial reports, communications from the Wisconsin Realm Office and from Imperial Headquarters, and miscellaneous items. OCLC #145790494
  • Ku Klux Klan. KlEagle of Marathon County, Wisconsin. Marathon, WI: KKK of Marathon County, 192? OCLC #24048884
  • Ku Klux Klan. Ku Klux Klan souvenir programme, state klonvokation, Oshkosh, Wis., July 4th, 1925. Winnebago County Headquarters, 1925. OCLC #191702674

Readings on the KKK and WCTU

  • I. KKK
  • America is Ours. The Kluxer. Vol. 1 No. 14. Dayton: Ferret Publishing Company, 27 October
  • Barr, Daisy Douglas. The Soul of America. Paper Read at the First Annual Meeting of Grand Dragons Knights of the Ku Klux Klan at Asheville, North Carolina, July 1923.
  • Behreus, David. The KKK flares Up on LI: In the early 1920's, white robes and burning crosses are seen in many villages. Long Island: Our Story. (Newsday.com/LIHistory.com)
  • Bentley, Max. The Ku Klux Klan in Indiana. McClure's Magazine, 1924 (May), 58.
  • Blee, Kathleen M. Women of the Klan: Racism and Gender in the 1920s. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1991.
  • Casey, Lee. When the Klan controlled Colorado. Rocky Mountain News, 1946. (June 17-19).
  • Chalmers, David M. Hooded Americans: the History of the Ku Klux Klan. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1991.
  • Cocoltchos, Christopher N. The Invisible Government and the Visible Community: The Ku Klux Klan in Orange County, California, During the 1920s. Los Angeles, CA: University of California at Los Angeles, Ph.D. dissertation, 1979.
  • Feldman, Glenn. Politics, Society, and the Klan in Alabama, 1915-1949. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press, 1999.
  • Gerlach, Larry R. Blazing Crosses in Zion: The Ku Klux Klan in Utah. Logan, UT: Utah State University Press, 1982.
  • Goldberg, Robert Allen. Hooded Empire: The Ku Klux Klan in Colorado. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1981.
  • Gunn, LaDonna. The Protestant "Kluxing" of Canon City, Colorado. Canon City, CO: Canon City Public Library
  • Harris, Loina D. The Rise and Fall of the Second Ku Klux Klan. M.A. thesis. Virginia State University, 1998.
  • Horowitz, David A. (Ed.) Inside the Klavern: The Secret History of the Ku Klux Klan of the 1920s. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1999.
  • Hux, Roger K. The Ku Klux Klan in Macon, 1919-1925. Georgia Historical Quarterly, 1978, 62, 155-168.
  • Jackson, Kenneth T. The Ku Klux Klan in the City 1915-1930. New York: Oxford University Press, 1967.
  • Jenkins, William D. Steel Valley Clan: the Ku Klux Klan in Ohio's Mahoning Valley. Kent, OH: Ohio State University Press, 1990.
  • Jenkins, William D. The Ku Klux Klan in Youngstown, Ohio: Moral reform in the twenties. Historian, 1978 (November), 76-93.
  • Jones, Lila Lee. The Ku Klux Klan in Eastern Kansas during the 1920's. Emporia State Research Studies, 1975 (Winter), 23.
  • Kerbawy, Kelli R. Knights in White Satin: Women of the Ku Klux Klan. M.A. thesis. Marshall University, 2007.
  • Klan Women of Nation in Session Here. Indianapolis Times. Vol. 39, No. 75. 5 August 1927.
  • Klansmen and Klanswomen Have Reasons to Be Thankful. The Kluxer. Vol. 1 No. 18. Dayton: Ferret Publishing Company, 24 November 1923.
  • Klanswoman. American Society a Mighty School. Vol. 1 No. 13. The Kluxer. Dayton: Ferret Publishing Company, 20 October 1923.
  • Klanswomen File State Office Report. Indianapolis Star. 1 July 1969.
  • Lay, Shawn. Hooded Knights of the Niagara: The Ku Klux Klan in Buffalo, New York. NY: New York University Press, 1995.
  • Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, Constitution and Laws of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. Atlanta: Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, Inc., 1921.
  • Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. Ideals of the Ku Klux Klan. Oxford: Main Office of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, nd.
  • Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. Patriotism: A Message From The Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. Oxford: Main Office of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, 1931.
  • Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. Point of View From the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. Oxford: Main Office of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, n.d.
  • Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. Power of the Jury: A Message from the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. Oxford: Main Office of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, nd.
  • Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. Principles and Purposes of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, nd.
  • Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. Register to Vote and Vote. Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, n.d.
  • Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. The Untold Story About the Ku Klux Klan, Part One. Oxford: Knights of the Ku Klux Klan Realm of New Jersey, nd.
  • Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. The Untold Story About the Ku Klux Klan, Part Two. Oxford: Knights of the Ku Klux Klan Realm Of New Jersey, nd.
  • Lay, Shawn (Ed.) The Invisible Empire in the West: Toward a New Historical Appraisal of the Ku Klux Klan of the 1920s. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1992.
  • Loucks, Emerson H. The Ku Klux Klan in Pennsylvania: A Study in Nativism. Harrisburg, PA: Telegraph Press, 1936.
  • MacLean, Nancy K. Behind the Masks of Chivalry: The Making of the Second Ku Klux Klan. NY: Oxford University Press, 1994.
  • Marszalek, John F. KKK: The 1920s Ku Klux Klan in the Midwest. Timeline, 1994 (March-April), 11(2).
  • Miller, Robert Moats. A Note on the relationship between the Protestant Churches and the revival of the Ku Klux Klan. Journal of Southern History, 1956 (August), 22, 355-368.
  • Moore, Leonard. Historical interpretation of the 1920s Klan: The traditional view and the populist revision. Journal of Social History, 1990, 24, 341-357.
  • Moore, Leonard. Citizen Klansmen: The Ku Klux Klan in Indiana, 1921-1928. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1991.
  • Moseley, Clement Charlton. Political influence of the Ku Klux Klan in Georgia, 1915-1925. Georgia Historical Quarterly, 1973, 57, 235-255.
  • Mrs. Sedwick is New Klan Head. The Indianapolis Times. 24 June 1926.
  • Newton, Michael. The Invisible Empire: The Ku Klux Klan in Florida. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida Press, 2001.
  • Norberg, David. Klu Klux Klan in the Valley: A 1920's Phenomenon. Quillen, Ed. Welcome to Kolorado, Klan Kountry: When the Invisible Empire ran the state, only one major city escaped - Colorado Springs News, May 22-28, 2003.
  • Our Foremost Duty as Klanswomen. The Kluxer. Vol. 1 No. 14. Dayton: Ferret Publishing
  • Company, 27 October 1923.
  • Rice, Arnold S. The Ku Klux Klan in American Politics. Washington D.C.: Public Affairs Press, 1962.
  • Schafer, Joseph. The second Ku Klux Klan. M.A. thesis. University of Wisconsin--Madison, 1934.
  • Some Surprises About the Bible. Vol.1 No. 13. The Kluxer. Dayton: Ferret Publishing
  • Company, 20 October 1923.
  • Taylor, Janette K. The Privileged Margin in Social Movement Rhetoric : Daisy Douglas Barr and the Women of the Ku Klux Klan. M.A. thesis. Texas Tech University, 2000.
  • Toy, Edward V. The Ku Klux Klan in Oregon: Its Program and Purpose. University of Oregon, M.A. thesis, 1959.
  • Tri-K Klub. Ritual of the Tri-K Klub. Little Rock: 1920s.
  • Turcheneske, John A., Jr. The Ku Klux Klan in Northwestern Wisconsin. River Falls, WI: Wisconsin State University-River Falls, M.A. thesis, 1971.
  • Tucker, Richard K. The Dragon and the Cross: The Rise and Fall of the Ku Klux Klan in Middle America. Hamden, CT: Archon, 1991.
  • Votes for Women: Some Reasons Why They Should Vote. The Kluxer. Vol. 1 No. 14. Dayton: Ferret Publishing Company, 27 October 1923.
  • Wade, Wyn Craig. The Fiery Cross: The Ku Klux Klan in America. NY: Oxford University Press, 1998.
  • Weaver, Norman F. The Knights of the Ku Klux Klan in Wisconsin, Indiana, Ohio and Michigan. Northwestern University, Ph.D. dissertation, 1986.
  • Weisberger, Bernard A. When white hoods were in flower. American Heritage, 1992 (April), 43(2), 18-19.
  • Women of the Ku Klux Klan. America for Americans: Creed of Klanswomen. Little Rock, n.d.
  • Women of the Ku Klux Klan. American Women Americanizing America. Atlanta: The Kamelia, n.d.
  • Women of the Ku Klux Klan. Application for Citizenship in the Invisible Empire, Women of the Ku Klux Klan (Incorporated). 1923.
  • Women of the Ku Klux Klan. Application for Admission to the Second Degree Invisible Empire, Women of the Ku Klux Klan. Women of the Ku Klux Klan, n.d.
  • Women of the Ku Klux Klan. Catalogue of Official Robes and Banners. Women of the Ku Klux Klan, n.d..
  • Women of the Ku Klux Klan. Code of the Flag. Little Rock: Women of the Ku Klux Klan Supreme Headquarters, 1923.
  • Women of the Ku Klux Klan. Constitution and Laws of the Women of the KKK. Little Rock, 1923.
  • Women of the Ku Klux Klan. The Equality of Women Booklet. Women of the Ku Klux Klan, Inc Imperial Headquarters, n.d.
  • Women of the Ku Klux Klan. Funeral Rites. Women of the Ku Klux Klan, n.d.
  • Women of the Ku Klux Klan. Ideals of the Women of the Ku Klux Klan. Little Rock, n.d.
  • Women of the Ku Klux Klan. Kleagle's Weekly Report. Women of the Ku Klux Klan, n.d.
  • Women of the Ku Klux Klan. Kloran of the Women of the KKK: Ritual for the First Degree. n.d.
  • Women of the KKK. Women of the Ku Klux Klan, n.d.
  • Women of the Ku Klux Klan. Objects Women of the Ku Klux Klan. Imperial Headquarters Little Rock, Arkansas, n.d.
  • Women of the Ku Klux Klan. Installation Ceremonies. Little Rock, n.d.
  • Women of the Ku Klux Klan. Official Document. Imperial Headquarters of the Invisible Empire, 2 June 1927.
  • Women of the Ku Klux Klan. Official Document. Imperial Headquarters of the Invisible
  • Empire, 24 March 1927.
  • Women of the Ku Klux Klan. Petition for Citizenship in the Invisible Empire. Women of the
  • Ku Klux Klan, n.d.
  • Women of the Ku Klux Klan. Ritual in the Degree of Kriterion Konservator of the Women of
  • the KKK. Little Rock, n.d.
  • Women of the Ku Klux Klan. Imperial Passport. Little Rock: Women of the Ku Klux Klan,
  • 1920s. Little Rock: Imperial Headquarters Women of the Ku Klux Klan, n.d.
  • Women of the Ku Klux Klan. Rules and Procedure in Matters of Suspension in Provisional
  • Klans. Women of the Ku Klux Klan, n.d.
  • Women of the Ku Klux Klan. Second Degree Obligation First Section. Women of the Ku Klux
  • Klan, n.d.
  • Many of these documents can be located at the Indiana Historical Research Foundation, Ball State University Library Special Collections, Michigan State University Library, University of New Mexico Center for Southwest Research.
  • II. WCTU
  • Bowman, Tammy. The Influence of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union on Women's Suffrage. Wright State University, 2001.
  • Bradley, E. Bertha. Membership in the Woman's Christian Temperance Union. American Journal of Nursing, 1916, 16(10), 1029-1030.
  • Canfield, Pauline E. Department of Heredity, Missouri W.C.T.U. Kansas City, MO: H.N Farey, 1886.
  • Cook, Sharon Anne. "Through Sunshine and Shadow": The Woman'sChristian Temperance Union, Evangelism, and Reform in Ontario, 1874-1930. N.p.: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1995.
  • Dublin, Thomas and Scheuerer. Why Did Aftrican-American Women Join the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, 1880-1900. Binghamton, NY: State University of New York, 2000. OCLC Number:83676674
  • Fahringer, Brooke E. Scientific Temperance Instruction and Censorship in the Woman's Christian Temperance Union. Thesis. Drew University, 2006.
  • Gelser, Sara. Beyond the Ballot: The Woman's Christian Temperance Union and the Politics of Oregon Woman, 1880-1900. Thesis. Oregon State University, 1998.
  • Gusfield, Joseph R. Social structure and moral reform: a study of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union. American Journal of Sociology, 1955, 61(3), pp. 221-232.
  • Gusfield, Joseph R. Symbolic Crusade: Status Politics and the American Temperance Movement. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1986.
  • Harry, Millicent K. A Century of Service: The History of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union of South Australia, Inc. Adelaide:WCTU of South Australia, 1986.
  • Hays, Agnes D. Heritage of Dedication: One Hundred Years of the National Woman's Christian Temperance Union, 1874-1974. Evanston, IL: Signal Press, 1973.
  • Hicks, Rosemary R, Religious Movements and the Challenge to Nineteenth-Century Victorian Ideology: Christian Science and the Woman's Christian Temperance Union. Thesis. Graduate Theological Union, 2002. OCLC Number: 53980841
  • Jordan, Renee. White-Ribboners: The Woman's Christian Temperance Union of Tasmania, 1885-1914. Thesis. University of Tasmania, 2007.
  • Kuhl, Mary E., et al. Organization and Accomplishments of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union in Illinois, Massachusetts, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, and Virginia. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 1908, vol. 32, 43-60.
  • Mihalououlos, Bill. Mediating the good life: prostitution and the Japanese Woman's Christian Temperance Union, 1880s-1920s. Gender & History, 2009, 21(1), 19-38.
  • Schiffner, Carli C. Continuing to "Do Everything" in Oregon: The Woman's Christian Temperance Union, 1900-1945 and Beyond. Thesis. 2004. OCLC Number: 60406473
  • Stevens, Lillian M.N. The work of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 1908, vol. 32, pp. 38-42.
  • Tyrrell, Ian R. Woman's World/Woman's Empire: The Woman's Christian Temperance Union in International Perspective, 1880-1930. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1991.
  • Veer, Joanne E. Feminist Forebears: The Woman's Christian Temperance Union in Canada's Maritime Provinces, 1875-1900. Thesis. University of Maine, 1994.
  • Willard, Frances Elizabeth. Address Before the Second Biennial Convention of the World's Woman's Christian Temperance Union, and the Twentieth Annual Convention of the National Woman's Christian Temperance Union. Chicago: Woman's Temperance Publishing Association, 1893. (lincoln.lib.niu.edu/filoe.php?file=fewaddress.html)
  • Willard, Frances E. Women and Temperance: or, The Work and Workers of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union. NY: Arno Press, 1972 (orig. pub. 1883)
  • Willard, Frances E. The Ideal of "the New Woman" According to the Woman's Christian Temperance Union. NY: Garland Publishing, 1987.
  • Woman's Christian Temperance Union. Winners without Drugs: Woman's Christian Temperance Union of NSW, Inc. Annual General Meeting, March 27-28, 2006. Sydney, NSW: Woman's Christian Temperance Union of New South Wales, 2008.

References:

  • 1. Statement from Chancellor Brehm on Benton Mural. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University press release, March 25, 2002.
  • 2. Lantzwe, Jason S. Dark Beverages of Hell. Part III. Rural History Project (rural history project.org/research_report?385&F=1)
  • 3. Lay, Shawn. Hooded Knights on the Niagara: The Ku Klux Klan in Buffalo, New York. NY: New York University Press, 1995.
  • 4. McCaymer, John F. The Ku Klux Klan in the 1920s. Assumption College, October 2001.assumption.edu/ahc/1920s/Eugenics/Klan.html 
  • 5. Kleinegger, Christine. Women in the Ku Klux Klan: Constitution and Bylaws; Outline of Principles and Teachings. Albany, NY: New York State Museum. The University of the State of New York, n.d.
  • 6. Norberg, David. Ku Klux Klan in the Valley: A 1920s Phenomenon. White River Journal, January, 2004.
  • 7. Tucker, Richard K. The Dragon and the Cross: The Rise and Fall of the Ku Klux Klan in Middle America. Hamden, CT: Archon, 1991, p. 111.
  • 8. Politics and World Affairs, August 30, 2004. Italics are in original. (backwash.com/previewnewsarchive.php?newsid=1576) Or in the words of historian Dr. Leonard Moore, "The single most important bond between Klansmen throughout our nation was support for Prohibition." See Prohibition and the Rise of Big Government, p. 488. (americanpoliticaldevelopment.org/townsquare/print_res/in_progress/morone_prohibition.pdf)
  • 9. Feldman, Glenn. Politics, Society, and the Klan in Alabama, 1915-1949. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press, 1999.
  • 10. The 1920s: An active Ku Klux Klan raises fear. Santa Cruz Sentinel on-line edition. (santacruzsentinel.com/extra/century/25/indix.html)
  • 11. Johnson, Ben. John Barleycorn Must die! The War Against Drink in Arkansas: 1920-1950. Little rock, AR. Old State House Museum exhibit. (oldstatehouse.com/exhibits/archive/john-barleycorn/default.asp) and (oldstatehouse.com/exhibits/archive/john-barleycorn/1920-1950.asp). 
  • 12. Ku Klux Klan. Handbook of Texas Online (a joint project of the General Library of the University of Texas at Austin and the Texas Historical Association) (http://www.tsha.utexas.edu/handbook/online/articles/KK/vek2_print.html)
  • 13. The Federal Bureau of Investigation. The Ku Klux Klan. Section I: 1915-1944. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation, July, 1957, p. 21.
  • 14. Moore, Leonard J. Citizen Klansmen: The Ku Klux Klan in Indiana, 1921-1928. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1991.
  • 15. Behreus, David. The KKK flares up on LI: In the early 1920's, white robes and burning crosses are seen in many villages. Long Island: Our Story. Newsday.com/LIHistory.com
  • 16. Smith, Richard Candida. The United States from the Late 19th Century through the Great Depression: Prohibition (History 124). University of California at Berkeley. (history.berkeley.edu/faculty/Smith/H124/lectures/lecture17.html)
  • 17. Zerzan, John. Rank-and-file radicalism within the Ku Klux Klan of the 1920s. Anarchy, 1993 (Summer), vol. 37.
  • 18. Schaal, Peter. Sanford as I Knew It, 1912-1935. Orlando, FL: P. Schaal, 1970.
  • 19. O'Neil, Tim. Prohibition. Post-Dispatch, January 13, 2004.
  • 20. Resurgence of the Ku Klux Klan, 1920s. u-s-history.com (u-s-history.com/pages/h1381.html); Better than Necessary: A Celebrational History of Shawnee Mission North High School (smn-rab.org/SMN-HIST/btn_20s.htm)
  • 21. Blee, Kathleen M. Women of the Klan: Racism and Gender in the 1920s. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1991, p. 44.
  • 22. Blee, Kathleen M. Women of the Klan: Racism and Gender in the 1920s. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1991, p. 27.
  • 23. Blee, Kathleen M. Women of the Klan: Racism and Gender in the 1920s. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1991, p. 27.
  • 24. Blee, Kathleen M. Women of the Klan: Racism and Gender in the 1920s. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1991, pp. 27, 31, 35 and 85.

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