Temperance Movement Groups and Leaders in the U.S.

by David J. Hanson, Ph.D.

Organizations opposed to alcohol consumption arose in the US began before the Civil War (1861-1865). They began by calling for voluntary abstinence but with the passage of time began to insist that no one be permitted to consume any alcohol by force of law. However, the Civil War diverted attention to more pressing matters and interest in the movement largely died.

Following the War, the movement for prohibition reemerged and began growing. A growing women’s movement focusing on protection of the family, along with the strong support of many Protestant churches, propelled the movement forward beginning in the 1880s.

After that time a number of states adopted state-wide prohibition within their borders. However, it was World War I that made possible the passage of national Prohibition. The strong anti-German prejudice made brewers (who were generally of German origin) popular targets of hostility, the argument that alcohol beverage production diverted grain needed for the war effort, the lack of organization on the part of those who didn‘t support prohibition (the “wets“), the effective organization of prohibitionists (the drys), the strong support of the Ku Klux Klan (KKK), political intimidation, and the effects of decades of temperance propaganda made possible the passage of the Eighteenth Amendment establishing national Prohibition. National Prohibition of Alcohol in the US describes this subject in more detail.

National Prohibition not only failed to prevent the consumption of alcohol, but led to the extensive production of dangerous unregulated and untaxed alcohol, the development of organized crime, increased violence, and massive political corruption. Although Prohibition was repealed in 1933, there are still hundreds of dry counties across the United States today. Amazingly, some people today insist that Prohibition was a success!

Because Prohibition is now recognized by most people as having been a disastrous failure and currently lacks strong political support, modern prohibitionists are using a different approach to achieve their goal.

Their tactic is to establish cultural rather than strictly legal prohibition by making alcohol beverages less socially acceptable and marginalizing those who drink, no matter how moderately. Like the anti-alcohol activists who preceded them, the neo-prohibitionists of today (often called reduction-of-consumptionists, neo-drys, or neo-Victorians) don’t distinguish between the use and the abuse of alcohol. Both should be reduced.

Neo-prohibitionists tend to believe that:

These beliefs lead neo-prohibitionists to call for such measures as:

Biographies

Read more about the people of Prohibition.

Temperance Groups and Leaders

Some of the many anti-alcohol groups and leaders of the past and present are identified here alphabetically.

American Council on Alcohol Problems

The American Council on Alcohol Problems is a federation of state affiliates promoting the reduction of consumption agenda. The Council was known as the Anti-Saloon League from 1893 until 1948, the Temperance League until 1950, the National Temperance League until 1964, and now as the American Council on Alcohol Problems. It partners with George Hacker’s Alcohol Policies Project at the Center for Science in the Public Interest and other temperance groups.

References:

  • American Council on Alcohol Problems. Encyclopedia Britannica Online.
  • Asbury, Herbert. The Great Illusion: An Informal History of Prohibition. New York: Greenwood Press, 1968 (Originally published 1950).
  • Kobler, John. Ardent Spirits: The Rise and Fall of Prohibition. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1973.
  • Krout, John A. The Origins of Prohibition. New York: Knopf, 1925.
American Issue Publishing Company

The American Issue Publishing Company, incorporated in 1909, was the holding company of the Anti-Saloon League of America. Its printing presses operated 24 hours a day and it employed 200 people in the small town of Westerville, Ohio, where the company was headquartered. Within the first three years of its existence, the publishing house was producing about 250,000,000 (one-quarter billion) book pages per month, and the quantity increased yearly. This dwarfed the enormous output of the National Temperance Society and Publishing House, which took over half a century to print one billion pages.

The American Issue Publishing Company played a major role in advancing the interests of the temperance movement. Not only did it publish an enormous quantity of temperance materials but it also produce some of the most prestigious temperance publications, including The Standard Encyclopedia of the Liquor Problem, a multi-volume work edited by Ernest Cherrington and published between 1925 and 1930.

References:

  • Hanson, David J. Preventing Alcohol Abuse: Alcohol, Culture, and Control. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1996.
  • Odegard, Peter H. Pressure Politics: The Story of the Anti-Saloon League. NY: Columbia University Press, 1928.
Anti-Saloon League

The Anti-Saloon League was a non-partisan organization established in 1893 that focused on the single issue of prohibition. The League had branches across the United States to work with churches in marshalling resources for the prohibition fight.

From 1948 until 1950 it was known as the Temperance League, from 1950 to 1964 it was called the National Temperance League; from then it has been known as the American Council on Alcohol Problems. The current name disguises its prohibitionist agenda.

The best single source of information about the Anti-Saloon League is Peter H. Odegard, Pressure Politics: Story of the Anti-Saloon League. New York: Columbia University Press, 1928, reprinted 1966); the League’s archives and other materials are now located at the Anti-Saloon home page (wpl.lib.oh.us/AntiSaloon/)

References:

  • Anti-Saloon League of America. Anti-Saloon League of America Yearbook. Westerville OH: American Issue Press, 1920
  • Cherrington, Ernest. History of the Anti-Saloon League. Westerville, OH: American Issue Publishing Co., 1913.
  • Dohn, Norman Harding. The History of the Anti-Saloon League. Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms, 1976.
  • Ewin, James Lithgow. The Birth of the Anti-Saloon League. Washington, D.C., 1913.
  • Kerr, K. Austin. Organized for Prohibition: A New History of the Anti-Saloon League. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1985.
  • Lien, Jerry. The Speechmaking of the Anti-Saloon League. University of Southern California, 1968.
Califano, Joseph A.

Joseph Califano says he felt that he was on a genuine religious mission by creating the Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse (CASA), explaining that “for me, establishing and building CASA and committing myself to this battle against substance abuse was doing the Lord’s work.” For Joe Califano, virtually any alcohol consumption is alcohol abuse. One observer reports that " Califano is essentially a reincarnation of the old temperance warriors."

With messianic zeal Joe Califano and his Center have become well known for presenting highly questionable advocacy “research.” To learn more about Mr. Califano visit Joe Califano and His Center for Addiction and Substance Abuse(CASA).

Cannon, Jr. , Bishop James

Cannon, Jr. , Bishop James After the death of powerful Anti-Saloon League leader Wayne Wheeler in 1927, Bishop James Cannon, Jr., chairman of the Methodist Board of Temperance, Prohibition, and Public Morals, emerged as the most powerful leader of the temperance movement in the United States. Journalist H. L. Mencken said of Cannon that "Congress was his troop of Boy Scouts and Presidents trembled whenever his name was mentioned."

Cannon hated Catholicism almost as much as alcohol and called it “The mother of ignorance, superstition, intolerance, and sin.” During the presidential campaign between Catholic Al Smith and Protestant Herbert Hoover, Cannon “launched extremely personal attacks on Smith that shocked even many seasoned political observers.”

Cannon also used blatant bigotry. He told voters that Smith wanted

…the Italians, the Sicilians, the Poles, and Russian Jews. That kind has given us a stomach ache. We have been unable to assimilate such people in our national life, so we shut the door on them. But Smith says ‘give me that kind of people.’ He wants the kind of dirty people you find today on the sidewalks of New York.

However Bishop Cannon's short-lived power came to an end when he was forced to defend himself before a Senate committee against charges of financial irregularities as a lobbyist, before the General Conference of the Methodist Church on charges of immoral conduct, and before a federal grand jury on charges of conspiring to violate the Federal Corrupt Practices Act.

Cannon's highly profitable stock speculations on margin with a corrupt securities firm, his hoarding of flour during World War I that was sold at a great profit, and his sexual affair with his secretary long before his wife's death all destroyed the reputation and influence of this once powerful dry leader. The expose was one of many factors contributing to the repeal of prohibition because “the drys were thoroughly discredited by Cannon’s conduct of his personal and financial affairs. Opponents of Prohibition had long argued that many prohibitionists were hypocrites and “the opprobrium he earned for himself was transferred to the whole prohibition movement.”

One biographer described Cannon as an unpleasant and deceitful person. Although he “loved power and prestige, profit and pleasure,“ Cannon was a distant and aloof individual. One Anti-Saloon League colleague described him as “cold as a snake” and another, with whom he has worked closely for forty years, reported having never seen him laugh and rarely smile.

References:

  • Cashman, Sean Dennis. Prohibition: The Lie of the Land. NY: Free Press and London: Collier Macmillan, 1981.
  • Dabney, Virginius. Dry Messiah: the Life of Bishop Cannon. NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 1949.
  • Hohner, Robert A. Prohibition and Politics: The Life of Bishop James Cannon, Jr. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 1999.
  • Kobler, John. Ardent Spirits: The Rise and Fall of Prohibition. NY: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1973.
  • Kyvig, David. Repealing National Prohibition. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1979.
  • Patterson, Michael S. The fall of a bishop: James Cannon, Jr., versus Carter Glass, 1909-1934. Journal of Southern History, 1973 (November), 39, 493-518.
  • Rose, Kenneth D. American Women and the Repeal of Prohibition. NY: New York University Press, 1996.
  • Watson, Richard L (Ed.) Bishop Cannon’s Own Story. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1955.
Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse (CASA)

CASA has a long record of producing highly suspect papers about alcohol that are later discredited. For example, a researcher "examined some of the references in (a) CASA paper and found the conclusions in the articles to be shockingly different from the way CASA depicted them." Report after report by CASA has been exposed as lacking credibility, leading The Washington Times to observe that CASA has a "proven disdain for the facts."

Understandably, scholars have a lot of negative things to say about the Center on Alcohol and Substance Abuse, "some of it unprintable" observed Christopher Shea in the Chronicle of Higher Education.

More information about the CASA is found at The Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse: A Center for Alcohol Statistics Abuse?

Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth (CAMY)

The Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth (CAMY) was up and funded by the Pew trusts and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. The stated mission of CAMY is to monitor "the marketing practices of the alcohol industry to focus attention and action on industry practices that jeopardize the health and safety of America's youth."

CAMY explains that "reducing high rates of underage alcohol consumption and the suffering caused by alcohol-related injuries and death among young people" requires limiting the appeal of alcohol beverages to young people and their access to them." It seeks to create "public outrage" against alcohol advertising to achieve its objective.

The Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth begins with an assumption which it then sets out to prove. In doing so it is clearly an activist group rather than an objective scientific organization seeking to learn the truth. Judging from CAMY's statements and activities to date, it's doubtful if the Center would ever to find any alcohol advertising or any marketing practice to be acceptable. This may be an example of the Burger King phenomenon: Pew and Johnson pay for the research and "have it their way."

Learn more about CAMY at Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth : Its Objectives and Methods.

Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI)

The Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) is not a science center but, by its own admission, a public advocacy action center. CSPI demonstrates a continuing pattern of presenting alarming but erroneous and misleading statistics to promote its agenda. A major goal of CSPI is reducing the alcohol consumption of adults, even among moderate drinkers. A full-time director, George Hacker, and his staff work toward this goal through the group’s Alcohol Policies Project.

Both the Center for Science in the Public Interest and its Alcohol Policies Project are dedicated to "preventing alcohol" rather than "preventing the abuse of alcohol." They promote prohibitionist and neo-prohibitionist goals rather than public health goals. That's all the difference in the world.

To learn more about the activities of the CSPI visit Center for Science in the Public Interest.

Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP)

The Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) is a massively-funded federal agency that aggressively promotes the reduction-of-consumption or neo-prohibition approach to reduce alcohol problems: "Less alcohol is always still too much alcohol."

Although it is a federal agency supported by taxpayers, the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention has long been guilty of illegally misappropriating taxpayer money for lobbying, of censoring citizens with whom it disagrees, of self-servingly distorting statistics, and of using its power to abuse innocent Americans.

Some observers think the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention should be abolished. Learn more about CSAP at Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.

Coalition for the Prevention of Alcohol Problems

The Coalition for the Prevention of Alcohol Problems vigorously promotes a temperance agenda and should more accurately be called the Coalition for the Prevention of Alcohol. It is a coalition of temperance groups co-chaired by George Hacker of the Alcohol Policies Project and Stacia Murphy of the National Council on Alcohol and Drug Dependence (NCADD).

Members of the Coalition for the Prevention of Alcohol Problems include the Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU), the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (Mormon Church), the American Council on Alcohol Problems (earlier called the Anti-Saloon League), the Temperance League of Kentucky, the General Board of Global Ministries, and the Illinois Church Action on Alcohol Problems.

The Coalition’s Steering Committee meets weekly in Washington to set its agenda and plan it’s political strategy.

For more about organizer and leader of the Coalition for Alcohol Abuse Prevention visit George Hacker of CSPI.

Cogswell, Dr. Henry D.

Cogswell, Dr. Henry D. Henry Cogswell believed that if people had access to cool drinking water they wouldn't consume alcoholic beverages. It was his dream to construct one drinking fountain for every 100 saloons across he United States and many were built. These drinking fountains were elaborate structures built of granite that Cogswell designed himself. Cogswell's fountains can be found in Washington, D.C., New York City, Buffalo, Rochester, Boston, San Francisco and other cities. The concept of providing drinking fountains as alternatives to saloons was later implemented by the Women’s Christian Temperance Union.

The fountains were actually dwarfed by the large structures built in connection with them. Each was different but they were usually topped by a large statue of Cogswell holding a Bible in one hand a glass (presumably of water) in the other.

They were apparently not always well-received by the communities where they were built. One of the fountains in San Francisco was torn down by "a lynch party of self-professed art lovers" and one in Rockville, Connecticut was thrown into a lake. One of the fountains in Washington, DC, has been called "the city's ugliest statue" Cogwell’s well-intentioned structures reportedly spurred a movement across the country for cities to screen such gifts.

References:

  • Ciparelli, Jessica. Back where he belongs: Dr. Henry Cogswell statue once again graces Rockville’s Central Park. RockvilleCT.com (http://www.rockvillect.com/Cogswell/dedication.htm)
  • Cohn, Abby, They‘re 6 feet under, but pioneers draw crowds to Oakland, San Francisco Chronicle, January 5, 2001.
  • Kitsock, Greg. All’s well that ends with a drink to Cogswell. Washington City Paper, March 6, 1992.
Dodge, Earl

Longtime leader of the Prohibition Party, Earl F. Dodge was its candidate for vice-president of the U.S. in 1976 and 1980. He then became its candidate for presidency in 1984, 1988, 1992, 1996, 2000, and 2004.

Dodge has posted a Prohibition Party website which also promotes sales from “Havel’s House of History.” To what extent Dodge presumably benefits from this arrangement is not known. He has reportedly avoided paying Social Security taxes on his income from the Prohibition Party by routing it through the National Prohibition Foundation, which he controls.

Dodge received substantial Prohibition Party funds to build an addition onto his house for use as the Prohibition Party office. Although the office was moved into his residence, the only “addition” the building inspector could find was a portable tool shed in Dodge’s back yard.

“Dodge has amassed a notable personal hoard of political Americana, with an emphasis on Prohibition Party material – the “Roger Storms Collection,” named in honor of late Party historian Roger C. Storms. Money to develop this was provided by the Prohibition Trust Fund Association, until recently; in 2004, the Trust Fund withdrew its support, for lack of a satisfactory accounting from Dodge.

The American Political Items Collectors refused to renew Dodge’s membership sometime before 1995, after complaints by several members that Dodge had visited their homes, distracted them, and pocketed things he liked. He is no longer allowed into display areas at APIC meetings (although the meetings are open to the public).”

The party’s Treasurer of ten years, Earl Higgerson, resigned after Dodge refused to let him see the party‘s account books, see the list of donors, sign a check card at the bank, or learn what actions Dodge may have taken in his name as Treasurer. When Higgerson discovered that Dodge controlled another financial operation in addition to the party (the National Prohibition Foundation) he asked about it but Dodge told him that it was “none of your business.” Dodge’s daughter is now Treasurer.

Evidence that Dodge badly mismanaged the Partisan Prohibition Historical Society and the National Prohibition Foundation led “hostile directors” to take over the Society in 1997 and the Foundation in 2001.

Earl F. Dodge was unseated as Chairman of the Party at a public meeting called by a majority of the members of the Prohibition National Committee after he had held an invitation-only meeting at his home and then claimed that it was the lawful nominating convention of the Prohibition Party. The Prohibition National Committee then ran Gene Amondson as its presidential candidate. However, Dodge also ran, claiming that he was the legal and rightful candidate of the Prohibition Party.

References:

  • Hedges, James. Architect of oblivion: Earl Farwell Dodge. Prohibitionists website. (http://www.prohibitionists.org/History/Bios/dodge/body_dodge.html)
  • Warner, Joel. Want real change? Vote Prohibition: Despite internal struggles and the 21st Amendment, Mr. Prohibition and the dry party carry on. Boulder Weekly (http://www.boulderweekly.com/archive/102804/newsspin.html)
Hacker, George

Lawyer George A. Hacker has headed the temperance-oriented Alcohol Policies Project of the Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) for three decades. He is Co-Chair of the Coalition for the Prevention of Alcohol Problems, whose members include the American Council on Alcohol Problems (the current name of the Anti-Saloon League) and many other prohibition and temperance activist groups.

As part of his role as an anti-alcohol activist leader, George Hacker has authored and coauthored numerous publications to promote neo-prohibitionism. Hacker's efforts have not gone unnoticed. For example, he is described as "an outspoken anti-alcohol activist by journalist James Thalman in Utah’s Desert News and as "the undisputed general" of the forces attacking alcohol by Michael Massing in the New York Times.

To learn about George Hacker’s modus operandi, visit George Hacker of CSPI.

Hunt, Mary

Mary Hanchet Hunt, who was born in 1830, became one of the most powerful women in the nation promoting prohibition. As Superintendent of the Women’s Christian Temperance Union’s Department of Scientific Temperance Instruction she worked at the grass roots level to ensure passage of laws mandating that textbooks teach every school child a curriculum promoting complete abstinence for everyone and mandatory prohibition. She acquired the power to veto any textbook of which she did not approve. And she didn’t approve of any book that stated the fact that physicians sometimes prescribed alcohol or any book that even implied that drinking in moderation did not inevitably lead to serious alcohol abuse. That would send a “mixed message” inconsistent with the WCTU’s goal of prohibition.

It is indisputable that "by the time of her death in 1906, Mary Hunt had shaken and changed the world of education" with her campaign for coercive temperance education or "institutionalized prohibitionist propaganda." In 1901-1902, 22 million school children were exposed to anti-alcohol “education." The WCTU was perhaps the most influential lobby ever to shape what was taught in public schools. Though it was a voluntary association, it acquired quasi-public power as a censor of textbooks, a trainer of teachers, and arbiter of morality."

Mrs. Hunt’s integrity and morality is another matter. In order to deal with the accusation that she profited from reform, she signed over to charity the royalties due her on the thousands of physiology textbooks sold annually. Her never-publicized charity was the Scientific Temperance Association, a group composed of Hunt, her pastor, and a few friends. The association used its funds to support the operations of the national headquarters of the WCTU's Department of Scientific Temperance Instruction, a large house in Boston that was also Hunt's residence. For Mary Hunt, charity both began and stayed at home.

Resources:

  • Elson, Ruth M. in Guardians of Tradition: American Schoolbooks of the Nineteenth Century. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1964.
  • Flanders, Jessie K. Legislative Control of the Elementary Curriculum. New York: Teachers College, 1925.
  • Hanson, David J. Alcohol Education: What We Must Do. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1996.
  • Hunt, Mary H. A History of the First Decade of the Department of Scientific Temperance Instruction in Schools and Colleges. Boston, MA: Washington Press, 1892.
  • Hunt, Mary H. An Epoch of the Nineteenth Century: An Outline of the Work for Scientific Temperance Education in the Public Schools of the United States. Boston, MA: Foster, 1897.
  • Mezvinsky, Norton. Scientific temperance instruction in the schools. History of Education Quarterly, 1961, 7, 48-56.
  • Ohles, John F. The imprimatur of Mary H. H. Hunt. Journal of School Health, WS, 1978, 48, 477-478.
  • Ormond, Chart. Temperance Education in American Public Schools. Westerville, OH: American Issue Press, 1929
  • Sheehan, Nancy M. The WCTU and education: Canadian-American illustrations. Journal of the Midwest History of Education Society, 1981, P, 115-133.
  • Sheehan, Nancy M. National pressure groups and provincial curriculum policy: Temperance in Nova Scotia schools 1880-1930. Canadian Journal of Education, 1984b, 9, 73-88.
  • Tyack, David, B., and James, Thomas. Moral majorities and the school curriculum: Historical perspectives on the legalization of virtue. Teachers College Record, 1985, 86, 513-537.
  • Zimmerman, Jonathan. "The Queen of the Lobby": Mary Hunt, scientific temperance, and the dilemma of democratic education in America, 1879-1906. History of Education Quarterly, 1992, 32, 1-30.
Jacobson, Michael

Michael Jacobson established the Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) in 1971, along with two lawyers from one of Ralph Nader's activist groups. Both lawyers soon dropped out so, as Executive Director, Mr. Jacobson now operates his own activist group.

The Center for Science in the Public Interest isn't a science organization but a special interest advocacy group for public policy. Although it assumes the mantle of science in order to obtain legitimacy for its activities and programs, most of the CSPI's "science" hardly reaches the level of a high school science project. And high school students don't have a political agenda for which they distort the evidence or misrepresent the facts as Michael Jacobson and his Center for Science in the Public Interest apparently do.

Michael Jacobson calls for heavy taxes on foods of which he disapproves, numerous prohibitions, lawsuits against food producers, beverage producers, and convenience restaurants. He takes pride in being called the head of the food and beverage police.

For more on Michael Jacobson and his operation, Center for Science in the Public Interest, visit Michael Jacobson and His Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI)

Johnson, William E.

William E. Johnson, better known as “Pussyfoot Johnson,” was a leader of the Anti-Saloon League. He acquired his nickname for his stealth in enforcing prohibition laws for the Indian Service in Oklahoma.

After starting and publishing his own temperance newspaper, he joined the Anti-Saloon League and rose to become managing editor of the league’s publishing house, the American Issue Publishing Company. He was managing editor of the Standard Encyclopedia of the Liquor Problem, on which he worked closely with Wayne Wheeler. Johnson also traveled around the world promoting temperance on behalf of the World League Against Alcoholism.

Johnson developed some of the tactics used in the Anti-Saloon League. For example, he wrote to wet leaders, claiming to be a brewer and asked them for advice on how to defeat temperance activists. He then published the incriminating letters he received.

Johnson seemed proud of his dishonesty. “Did I ever lie to promote prohibition? Decidedly yes. I have told enough lies for the cause to make Ananias ashamed of himself” he wrote in an article titled “I had to lie, bribe and drink to put over prohibition in America.” (Note: Ananias was a notorious liar in the New Testament.)

A jury later found William Johnson guilty of forging Anti-Saloon League records to conceal his embezzlement of funds.

References:

  • Aaron, Paul, and Musto, David. Temperance and Prohibition in America: An Historical Overview. In: Moore, Mark H. , and Gerstein, Dean R. (Eds.) Alcohol and Public Policy: Beyond the Shadow of Prohibition. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1981. Pp. 127-180.
  • Blocker, Jack S. American Temperance Movements: Cycles of Reform. Boston: Twayne, 1989.
  • Johnson, William “Pussyfoot” I had to lie, bribe and drink to put over Prohibition in America. Hearst’s International-Cosmopolitan, May, 1926.
  • McKenzie, Frederick A. “Pussyfoot” Johnson. NY: Fleming & Revell Co., 1920.
  • Odegard, Peter H. Pressure Politics: The Story of the Anti-Saloon League. NY: Columbia University Press, 1928.
  • Westerville (Ohio) Public Library. Leaders: William E. Johnson. Westerville Public Library website.
Ku Klux Klan (KKK)

One of the major supporters of Prohibition was the “second KKK,” often called the KKK of the 1920s. The Klan was revived specifically to defend Prohibition, the enforcement of which was a cornerstone of its “reform” agenda. A historian has observed that “support for Prohibition represented the single most important bond between Klansmen throughout the nation.” Another scholar wrote that “enforcement of Prohibition, in fact, was a central, and perhaps the strongest, goal of the Ku Klux Klan.”

For more about the anti-alcohol nature of the KKK visit The Ku Klux Klan (KKK), Alcohol, & Prohibition.

Lewis, Diocletian

Diocletian Lewis (1823-1886), commonly known as Dr. Dio Lewis, was a temperance leader, preacher, feminist, social reformer, food/health faddist and considered by some to have been an eccentric. His father had been a “notorious drunkard,” a fact that may have led to his strong belief that alcohol was a great evil. Lewis used the title Doctor and sometimes practiced medicine, although he only had a degree in homeopathic studies. Nevertheless, he used his title and oratorical gift to good effect in promoting temperance.

In the 1880’s, Diocletian Lewis and his mother, Delecta, began leading groups of followers into saloons to pray for their closure as well as for the souls of the owners and bartenders. He later lectured in churches claiming almost miraculous results from conducting such “Visitation Bands.”

Dio Lewis’ actions and lectures inspired others to similar action, thus initiating the Women’s Crusade against alcohol. This crusade revitalized the moribund temperance movement and the Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) was later established.

Diocletian Lewis published books and tracts on a variety of subjects. A common theme in his writing was the “evil” of even moderate alcohol consumption. And because southern European men and women both tended to drink widely and frequently, he was hostile to both immigrants from that region. He and many other prohibitionists viewed them as immoral and degenerate:

And what is the secret of their demoralization? The women drink!!! Every woman, as well as every man; and during the time I was there, I never heard a woman decline to drink, except because of sickness; and one hour after dinner you could see the effects of wine-drinking in the face and eye of every women of the company.

Not surprisingly, Diocletian Lewis and many other prohibitions opposed immigration.

References:

  • Behr, Edward. Prohibition: Thirteen Years that Changed America. NY: Arcade, 1996.
  • Burns, Eric. The Spirits of America: A Social History of Alcohol. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 2004.
  • Eastman, Mary F. The Biography of Dio Lewis. NY: Fowler & Wells, 1891.
  • Rose, Kenneth D. American Women and the Repeal of Prohibition. NY: New York University Press, 1996.
Lincoln-Lee Legion

The Lincoln-Lee Legion was established by Anti-Saloon League-founder Howard Hyde Russell in 1903 to promote the signing of abstinence pledges by children. The organization was originally called the Lincoln League. However, in 1912 it was renamed the Lincoln-Lee League in order to make it more appealing to southern children and their parents.

The pledge called for a lifetime commitment to abstain from alcoholic beverages By 1925, over five million children had signed the total abstinence pledge cards. The pledge concept is currently used by the Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE) program, whose pledge numbers dwarf those of the Lincoln-Lee Legion.

References:

  • Engs, Ruth C. (ed) The Progressive Era’s Health Reform Movements. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003.
  • Odegard, Peter H. Pressure Politics: The Story of the Anti-Saloon League. NY: Columbia University Press, 1928.
Marin Institute

The Marin Institute for the Prevention of Alcohol and Other Drug Problems is a massively endowed organization that aggressively promotes reduction of consumption alcohol policies, equates alcohol with illegal drugs, and repeatedly reports as being accurate the often deceptive and misleading “research” and statistics generated by other anti-alcohol activist groups.

The Marin Institute has been recognized for its anti-alcohol activities by the Prohibition Party.

More about the Marin Institute for the Prevention of Alcohol and Other Drug Problems can be found at The Marin Institute: An Anti-Alcohol Activist Organization and Marin Institute Recognized.

Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD)

Mothers Against Drunk Driving was created in 1980 to reduce drunk driving and the death and injury that it can cause. Over time, temperance forces have gained control of MADD and it has largely become anti-alcohol rather than anti-drunk driving.

Candy Lightner, the founder and first President of MADD says “it has become far more neo-prohibitionist than I ever wanted or envisioned.” She explains “I didn’t start MADD to deal with alcohol. I started MADD to deal with the issue of drunk driving.”

More about MADD is located at: Mothers Against Drunk Driving: A Crash Course in MADD.

Nation, Carrie

Carrie Nation was one of the most colorful members of the Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU). Born in 1846, Carry Amelia Moore Nation (she adopted the name Carry A. Nation mainly for its value as a slogan and had it registered as a trademark) is best remembered for using a hatchet to smash and destroy bars and their contents (sometimes called “hatchetation“). Between 1900 and 1910, she was arrested 30 times for her destructive invasions of bars. She self-righteously believed she was doing God’s work and was highly intolerant of those who opposed her or her actions. She derisively labeled them "rum-soaked, whiskey-swilled, saturn-faced rummies."

Mrs. Nation applauded the assination of President William McKinley in 1901 because she believed that he secretly drank alcohol and that drinkers always got what they deserved.

Carrie Nation exploited her notoriety by appearing as a vaudeville entertainer, charging to lecture, publishing newsletters, selling photos of herself, and marketing souvenir hatchets. She died in 1911.

References:

  • Burns, Eric. The Spirits of America: A Social history of Alcohol. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 2004.
  • Carrie Amelia Nation. Kansas State Historical Society
  • (http://www.kshs.org/people/nation_carry.htm+%22Carrie+Nation%22&hl=en)
  • Carry A. Nation: The famous and Original Bar Room Smasher. Kansas State Historical Society (Online Exhibit) (http://www.kshs.org/exhibits/carry/carry1.htm+%22Carrie+Nation%22&hl=en)
  • Carrie Nation. Wickipedia.
  • Carrie Nation (America 1900) pbs.org
Office of Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse (AMA)

The American Medical Association (AMA) first passed a resolution supporting abstinence from alcohol even before National Prohibition was imposed in 1920 and continues to support it to this day.

Although the moderate consumption of alcohol is associated with better health and greater longevity than either abstinence or the abuse of alcohol, the AMA remains a temperance organization. This may be because so many physicians see the consequences of alcohol abuse, although the vast majority of people drink in moderation that's beneficial to their good health.

For whatever reason, the AMA promotes a temperance agenda. It describes its Office of Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse as "a national program office of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.” Not only did the temperance-oriented Robert Wood Johnson Foundation establish the AMA's office with an initial $5 million dollar grant but also it has poured many more millions of dollars into funding its activities.

For more about the Office of Alcohol and Other Drugs and other AMA temperance activities, visit American Medical Association: Abstinence Motivated Agenda.

Prohibition Party

The Prohibition Party was created in 1867 to advocate temperance and legislation prohibiting the production and sale of alcoholic beverages. It was an important force in US politics during the late 1800s and the early decades of the 20th century. The Prohibition Party is the oldest “third party” in the US and has nominated a candidate for president of the US in every election since 1872.

References:

  • Colvin, David L. Prohibition in the United States: A History of the Prohibition Party and of the Prohibition Movement. NY: George H. Doran Co., 1926.
  • Storms, Roger C. Partisan Prophets: A History of the Prohibition Party, 1854-1972. Denver, CO: National Prohibition Foundation, 1972.
  • Wheeler, E.J. Prohibition: the Principle, the Policy, and the Party. NY: Funk & Wagnall’s, 1889.
Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation attempts to stigmatize alcohol, de-legitimize drinking, and marginalize drinkers. It spent over a quarter of a billion dollars ($265,000,00.00) in just four years alone further developing and funding a nation-wide network of anti-alcohol organizations, centers, activist leaders, and opinion writers to achieve its long-term goal.

An in-depth report, Behind the Neo-Prohibition Campaign: The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, demonstrates that "nearly every study disparaging adult beverages in the mass media, every legislative push to limit alcohol marketing or increase taxes, and every supposedly 'grassroots' anti-alcohol organization" is funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF).

More information on the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation is found at Robert Wood Johnson Foundation: Financier of Temperance.

Scientific Temperance Federation

The Scientific Temperance Federation was founded in 1906 upon the death of Mary Hunt, head of the Women’s Christian Temperance Union’s Department of Scientific Temperance Instruction.

Legal arrangements that Mrs. Hunt had made to conceal the income from her “voluntary” work clouded ownership of her estate. This led to the creation of the Scientific Temperance Foundation. Mrs. Hunt’s personal secretary headed the new organization. Because of the substantial fortune she had amassed in promoting compulsory temperance education, and the tens of millions of textbooks this required, the Scientific Temperance Federation was able to engage in a wide variety of activities to promote the temperance movement and prohibition. A major nation-wide project was an innovative “Education on Wheels” project that took temperance education directly to people at their homes and farms.

References:

  • Hanson, David J. Alcohol Education. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1996.
  • Scientific Temperance Federation. Westerville (Ohio) Public Library. Papers of the Anti-Saloon League.
Sewall, Dr. Thomas

Dr. Thomas Sewall’s major contribution to the temperance movement was his graphic eight drawings of "alcohol diseased stomachs." Colored lithographs of these were made and widely distributed to promote teetotalism and the temperance movement.

Sewall believed that alcohol was responsible for most human illnesses, including dyspepsia, jaundice, emaciation, corpulence, rheumatism, gout, palpation, lethargy, apoplexy, melancholy, madness, and premature old age.

As a young physician in Massachusetts, Dr. Sewall was arrested, charged, and found guilty of multiple counts of the crime of grave robbing in 1819. Forced to leave the state, he moved to the nation's capital to re-establish his career. In 1825 he was a founding faculty member of the medical department at Columbian College, where he became professor of anatomy.

References:

  • Behr, Edward Prohibition: Thirteen Years that Changed America. NY: Arcade, 1996.
  • Furnas, J. C. Life and Times of the Late Demon Rum. G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1965.
  • Shultz, Suzanne M. Body Snatching: The Robbing of Graves for the Education of Physicians in Early Nineteenth Century American History. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1992.
Shuler, Rev. Robert P.

The Prohibition Party candidate who received the highest vote in any election in U.S. history was Rev. Robert P. Shuler. In the 1932 California election for the US Senate he received 560,088 votes (25.8%) and carried Orange and Riverside counties. Following his defeat, Shuler “placed an awful curse” on Southern California and some people attributed a later earthquake in that region to his curse.

“Fightin” Bob Shuler, owned radio station KGEF, which existed from 1926 to 1932. He said that KGEF stood for Keep God Forever First. The temperance movement leader lost the license for his station after his controversial broadcasts attacking Catholics, Jews, African Americans, and the Hollywood elite for their consumption of alcoholic beverages and their alleged dishonesty, corruption, and immorality. However, there is no evidence that he was a member of the Ku Klux Klan, which also strongly supported Prohibition.

Shuler was pastor of the Trinity Methodist Church in Los Angeles, California.

Robert P. Shuler was unrelated to the pastor of the Crystal Cathedral in Garden Grove, California.

References:

  • Oldradio. Oldradio’s Radio/TV Station Call Letter Origins. Oldradio website (http://nelson.oldradio.com/origins.html)
  • Prohibition Party. Outline of History (of the Prohibition Party). Prohibition Party website. (http://www.prohibitionists.org/History/body_history.htm)
  • The science and myths of predicting earthquakes. The Supernatural World website (http://www.thesupernaturalworld.co.uk/index.php? act=main&code=01&type=00&topic_id=1864)
Sunday, Billy

William Ashley "Billy" Sunday was noted first as a professional baseball player, and then more famous evangelist. Sunday spent time as an assistant to another evangelist before embarking solo in 1896. He was ordained as a preacher in the Presbyterian church in 1903. Sunday was one of the first prominent preachers to make use of the then-new medium of radio.

Sunday is noted as being one of the major promoters of temperance. One of his most famous sermons was "Booze, Or, Get on the Water Wagon," which convinced many people to give up drinking. He said “ I am the sworn, eternal and uncompromising enemy of the liquor traffic. I have been, and will go on, fighting that damnable, dirty, rotten business with all the power at my command.” Sunday preached that “whiskey and beer are all right in their place, but their place is in hell.”

As the tide of public opinion turned Prohibition, “his sermons became more extreme and reactionary, promoting a specific type of Americanism that excluded those who were not native-born fundamentalist Christians.“ After Prohibition was repealed in 1933, Sunday called for its reintroduction but became pessimistic and his sermons began dwelling on the end of the world, which he believed was imminent.

Billy Sunday amassed a fortune and died a wealthy man in 1935, leaving a substantial estate as well as trust funds for his children at the depth of the Depression when about one-third of the population was unemployed.

References:

  • Allen, Robert. Billy Sunday: Home Run to Heaven. Mott Media: Milford, MI. 1985.
  • Billy Sunday Online (billysunday.org/)
  • Ellis, William T. Billy Sunday: His Life and Message. Philadelphia, PA: John C. Winston Co., 1914.
  • Hill, Jeff. Defining Moments: Prohibition. Detroit, MI: Omnigraphics, 2004.
Volstead, Andrew John

Andrew Volstead is known as “The Father of Prohibition” because he sponsored and facilitated congressional passage of the National Prohibition Act, better known as the Volstead Act, which was largely written by Wayne Wheeler of the Anti-Saloon League. The Volstead Act provided the legal mechanism to enforce the 18the Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. That amendment prohibited "the manufacture, sale, or distribution of intoxicating liquors." The Volstead Act defined intoxicating liquors as beverages containing more than one-half of one percent alcohol and it gave federal authorities the power to prosecute violations.

Volstead was born in 1860 and elected to the first of his ten terms as a member of the US House of Representatives from his native state of Minnesota. Following the loss of his congressional seat in 1922 shortly after Prohibition was imposed, Volstead was hired as legal adviser to the chief of the National Prohibition Enforcement Bureau. Upon Repeal of Prohibition in 1933, Volstead returned to Minnesota where he practiced law and died in 1947.

References:

  • Volstead, Andrew John, (1860-1947) bioguide.congress.gov/
  • Andrew Volstead. spartacus.schoolnet.uk
  • Andrew Volstead. lawzone.com
  • The man behind the act (Andrew J. Volstead). American History, 2001, 35(6), 50.
Wheeler, Wayne

Wayne Wheeler, born in 1869, graduated from law school and within a few years became the attorney and General Counsel for the National Anti-Saloon League and its head lobbyist. He became widely known as the "dry boss" because of his enormous influence and power.

Under Wayne Wheeler's brilliant leadership, the League focused entirely on the goal of achieving Prohibition. It organized at the grass-roots level and worked extensively through churches. It supported or opposed candidates entirely based on their position regarding prohibition and nothing else. It completely disregard their party affiliation or position on other issues. Unlike other temperance groups, the Anti-Saloon League worked with the two major parties rather than backing the smaller Prohibition Party. Wheeler developed what is now known as pressure politics, which is sometimes also called Wheelerism.

Wheeler, was the de facto leader of the Anti-Saloon League and he wielded awesome power, as described by one historian:

Wayne B. Wheeler controlled six congresses, dictated to two presidents of the United States, directed legislation in most of the States of the Union, picked the candidates for the more important elective and federal offices, held the balance of power in both Republican and Democratic parties, distributed more patronage than any dozen other men, supervised a federal bureau from outside without official authority, and was recognized by friend and foe alike as the most masterful and powerful single individual in the United States.

By 1926 Wayne Wheeler was being criticized by some members of Congress who were questioning the League’s spending in some congressional races. He retired shortly thereafter and died in 1927.

References:

  • Childs, Randolph W. Making Repeal Work. Philadelphia, PA: Pennsylvania Alcoholic Beverage Study, Inc., 1947.
  • Hanson, David J. National Prohibition of Alcohol in the US
  • Hanson, David J. Preventing Alcohol Abuse. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1995.
  • Hogan, Charles Marshall. Wayne Wheeler: Single Issue Exponent. Cincinnati, OH: University of Cincinnati, 1986;
  • Steuart, Justin. Wayne Wheeler, Dry Boss: An Uncensored Biography of Wayne B. Wheeler. New York: Fleming H. Revell Company, 1928.
Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)

The Women’s Christian Temperance Union was founded in 1874 and claims to be the oldest voluntary, non-sectarian women’s organization in continuous existence in the world. WCTU membership peaked at about 200,000 members in the late 19th century.

Membership still requires signing a pledge of abstinence and paying dues. Current membership is reported at 8,000 members. The WCTU remains active in promoting its temperance agenda and partners with such temperance activist groups as the Coalition for the Prevention of Alcohol Problems.

References:

  • Blocker, Jr., Jack S. Retreat from Reform. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1976.
  • Blocker, Jr., Jack S. "Give to the Winds thy Fear": The Women's Temperance Crusade, 1873-1874. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1985.
  • Blocker, Jr., Jack S. American Temperance Movements: Cycles of Reform. Boston, MA: Twayne,1989.
  • Bordin, Ruth. Woman and Temperance: The Quest for Power and Liberty, 1873-1900. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 1981.
  • Erickson, Judith B. Making King Alcohol tremble. The juvenile work of the Women's Christian Temperance Union, 1874-1900. Journal of Drug Education, 1988, 18, 333-352.
  • Epstein, Barbara Leslie. The Politics of Domesticity: Women, Evangelism and Temperance in Nineteenth-Century America. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1981.
  • Gordon, Elizabeth Putnam. Women Torch-Bearers: The Story of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union. Evanston, IL: National Woman's Christian Temperance Union, 1924.
  • Pauly, Philip, J. The struggle for ignorance about alcohol: American physiologists, Wilbur Olin Atwater, and the Women's Christian Temperance Union. Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 1990, 64, 366-392.

Any successful social movement requires the concerted efforts of effective organizations supported by millions of dedicated individuals. Virtually all fall into obscurity in spite of their contributions. Significant, although less well-known, temperance individuals and organizations of the past are listed in the Appendix.

Conclusion

The activists who promoted National Prohibition (1920-1933) acted in a time when there was little scientific knowledge about the effects of alcohol and they had strange ideas. Consider these ridiculous assertions:

Astonishingly, all these statements, which are very misleading at best, were not made by prohibitionists of old but by officials representing governmental agencies of today. Significantly, the comments are not based on scientific evidence but instead seem to reflect a neo-prohibitionist effort to stigmatize alcohol.

The effort to stigmatize alcohol includes promoting the prohibitionist belief that there is no difference between moderate drinking and alcohol abuse--the two are portrayed as one and the same. This leads the U.S. Department of Education, for example, to direct schools and colleges to reject educational programs which promote responsible drinking among adults and instead favor a simplistic call for total abstinence.

Part of this oversimplified approach is the belief that alcohol is a dangerous gateway drug that causes users to begin using illegal drugs. The supposed "proof" provided is that most people who are involved with illicit drugs drank alcohol initially. Of course, most illicit drug users also drank milk, ate candy bars, and drank cola previously. But don't annoy the neo-prohibitionists with evidence or logic.

Government agencies and activist groups also systemically attempt to equate legal alcohol consumption with illegal drug use. For example, federal guidelines direct agencies to substitute "alcohol and drug use" with "alcohol and other drug use," to replace "substance abuse" with "alcohol and other drug abuse," and to avoid use of the term "responsible drinking" altogether.

Alcohol is also frequently associated with crack cocaine and other illegal drugs by discussing them in the same paragraph. Often the effort is more blatant. A poster picturing a wine cooler warns "Don't be fooled. This is a drug."

Technically, this assertion is correct. Any substance --salt, vitamins, water, food, etc.-- that alters the functioning of the body is a drug. But the word "drug" has negative connotations and the attempt is clearly to stigmatize a legal product that is used pleasurably in moderation by most American adults.

In stigmatizing alcohol as a "drug," however, neo-prohibitionists may be inadvertently trivializing the use of illegal drugs and thereby encourage their use. Or, especially among youngsters, these zealots may be creating the false impression that parents who use alcohol in moderation are drug abusers whose good example should be rejected by their children. Thus, this misguided effort to equate alcohol with illicit drugs is likely to be counterproductive.

Instead of stigmatizing alcohol and trying either to scare or force people into abstinence, we need to recognize that it is not alcohol itself but rather the misuse of alcohol that is the problem. The vast majority of American adults do in fact use alcohol in moderation to enhance the quality of their lives with no ill effects. The neo-prohibitionist attack on alcohol is proving to be not only deceptive and ineffective, but dangerously counterproductive in the effort to teach the responsible use of alcohol.

It’s obvious that temperance activists of today are remarkably similar to those of the past in both their beliefs and methods.

Appendix

Anderson, William H.

William Hamilton Anderson was one of the most successful lobbyists of the Anti-Saloon League (ASL).  Historian Michael Lerner argues that Anderson was extraordinary successful in advancing the dry cause in Maryland,.  In seven years, he and the ASL closed over one thousand saloons in Baltimore, nearly half the total. He was feared by adversaries and admired by supporters “the most skillful politician in the state.”

The ASL selected Anderson to direct its efforts to bring  prohibition to both New York city  and New York state and, thereby,  to advance the cause of National Prohibition. New York city was then the largest city in the U.S. and its financial, communication,  and cultural capitol with enormous power to influence the rest of the nation. The ASL’s Bishop James Cannon, Jr. called the city “Satan’s Seat” and proponents of  prohibition  (“drys”) saw winning that city  as important symbolically.

When Anderson arrived in New York city on the first of January, 1914, he  declared that “From now on, the attention of the National Anti-Saloon League will be directed toward New York as the liquor center of America.“ and he pledged to punish anyone who stood in the way of its prohibition agenda.

The “dry warrior” used such tactics as false rumors, forged documents,  character attacks, and intimidation. The combative political operative’s tactics were enough to “make your blood run cold and your hair stand up” reported one victim of Anderson’s machinations, Thaddeus Sweet, Speaker of the New York State Assembly. Quickly, few politicians dared to  oppose Anderson and the ASL.

A rare setback for Anderson occurred after he falsely reported to 300 newspapers across the state that  a secret “slush fund” has been established by “liquor interests” to bribe New York legislators to vote against legislation  sponsored by the ASL. When he appeared in Albany for a hearing on pending alcohol legislation promoted by the League,  the chairman of the committee barred Anderson from testifying  unless he submitted proof in support of his allegations of corruption. Unable to do so, he was forced to  b4ecome simply another observer of the hearings as on looking wets cheered .

One of Anderson’s strategies was to  push for “local option” laws that permitted the towns and cities of the state to  prohibit alcohol beverages locally. Beginning with the smaller towns  and rural areas, his plan was to bring the prohibition crusade ever closer to the  city of New York. The measure became law and promoting gerrymandering, Anderson dramatically increased its effectiveness.

Anderson also couched  the prohibition agenda in Progressive terminology in order to appeal to the popular Progressive movement and sentiment in the city, in particular. He described local option as “distinctly progressive” and promised that the ASL would have a “campaign of education” and address “questions of health and industrial efficiency.”

When the U.S. entered World War I in April of 1917,  Anderson equated the dry crusade as synonymous with patriotism. Under his direction, the ASL insisted that  “The challenge to loyal patriots of America today is to demand the absolute prohibition of the liquor traffic.”

The New York Times expressed concern over Anderson’s unwavering dogmatism and bigotry. One pamphlet  attacked “the un-American, pro-German, crime-producing, food-wasting, youth-corrupting, home-wrecking , treasonable liquor traffic” and asked “How can any loyal citizen, be he wet or dry, help or vote for a trade that is aiding a pro-German Alliance?” Another  insisted that “Everything in this country that is pro-German is anti-American. Everything that is pro-German must go.”

Anderson attributed resistance to Prohibition in the city to “unwashed and wild-eyed foreigners who have no comprehension of the spirit of America.“  He attacked Jews, Irish, Italians and others whose cultures generally included the consumption of alcohol.

However, Catholics became a special target of Anderson’s bigotry.  He accused the Catholic Church of mounting an “assault on law and order” and said Catholic leaders were “indignant over what they consider a Protestant victory.”  Therefore, Anderson said, the Church was engaged in “efforts to destroy [the Prohibition] victory and bring back the saloons.” A Catholic newspaper argued that  the New York ASL, under Anderson, had supplanted the Ku Klux Klan as the leading  anti-Catholic organization in the state. For his part, Anderson  said that the resurgence of the KKK was a natural and welcome  response to Catholic opposition to Prohibition and “the aggression of these wet anti-Protestant forces.”

Anderson attacked his opponents, silenced critics of Prohibition, and built alliances of opportunity that helped the ASL and other drys to change the United States Constitution.

References

  • Kerr, K. Austin.  Organized for Prohibition: A New History of the Anti-Saloon League. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1985.
  • Lerner, Michael A. Dry Martini: Prohibition in New York City. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Pres, 2007.
  • Odegard, Peter H. Pressure Politics: The Story of the Anti-Saloon League. NY: Columbia University Press, 1928
American Society for the Promotion of Temperance

Inspired by Lyman Beecher, the American Society for the Promotion of Temperance was founded in Boston, Massachusetts in 1826. It soon shortened its name to the Society for the Promotion of Temperance. The formation of the Society marked the beginning of the first formal national temperance movement in the country.

The Society facilitated the organized local units, supported itinerant temperance lecturers, distributed literature, promoted abstinence pledge-signing, and was a clearinghouse for nation-wide temperance movement activities. By 1834 the Society had an estimated membership of one million in five thousand local chapters. Its work also inspired the formation of hundreds of other state and local anti-alcohol groups.

Rev. Justin Edwards, a leader of the Society, said the purpose of the organization was to promote temperance while letting drunkards “die off and rid the world of ‘an amazing evil.’”

References:

  • Burns, Eric. The Spirits of America: A Social History of Alcohol. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 2004.
  • Clark, Norman H. Deliver Us from Evil: An Interpretation of American Prohibition. NY: W. W. Norton & Company, 1976.
  • Furnas, J. C. The Life and Times of the Late Demon Rum. NY: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1965.
  • Lender, Mark and Martin, James. Drinking in America: A History. NY: Free Press and London: Collier Macmillan, 1982.
American Temperance Society

The American Temperance Society was established in 1826. Within five years there were 2,220 local chapters in the U.S. with 170,000 members who had taken a pledge to abstain from drinking alcoholic beverages. Within ten years there were over 8,000 local groups and more than 1,500,000 members who had taken the pledge.

The society benefited from, and contributed to, a reform sentiment in much of the country promoting the abolition of slavery, expanding women’s rights, temperance, and the improvement of society. Possibly because of its association with the abolitionist movement, and in spite of its name, the American Temperance Society was most successful in northern states.

With the passage of time temperance groups increasingly pressed for the mandatory prohibition of alcohol rather than for voluntary abstinence.

References:

  • Rumbarger, John J. Profits, Power and Prohibition. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1989.
  • University of Virginia: American Temperance Society (xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/DETOC/every/life.htm+%22American+Temperance+Society%22&hl=en) Wesleyan University: American Temperance Society (wesleyan.edu/libr/schome/amezion/case3.htm+%22American+Temperance+Society%22&hl=en)
American Temperance University

The American Temperance University opened in the planned town of Harriman, Tennessee, which was developed as a community with no alcohol permitted. In its second year of operation the institution enrolled 345 students from 20 states. However, it closed in 1908. Those who attended included two students who later became members of the U.S. House of Representatives.

The university's main building, Temperance Hall, now houses government offices and its Hall of Domestic Science is an inn. Both have been designated historic landmarks.

References:

  • Furnas, J. C. The Life and Times of the Late Demon Rum. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1965.
  • Hanson, David J. Preventing Alcohol Abuse: Alcohol, Culture, and Control. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1995.
  • Tennessee Encyclopedia: American Temperance University
American Temperance Union

A national temperance union was formed in 1826 as the American Temperance Society. Shortly thereafter, a second national temperance group was organized and the two groups merged in 1836 to form the American Temperance Union.

The official publication of the American Temperance Union was the Journal of the American Temperance Union. The Union and its publication were influential in promoting the temperance movement. Within a decade there were over 8,000 similar groups with over 1.5 million members.

References:

  • Kobler, John. Ardent Spirits: The Rise and Fall of Prohibition. NY: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1973.
  • Christian Chronicle: American Temperance Union (christianchronicler.com/history1/benevolent_empire.html+%22American+Temperance+Union%22&hl=en)
  • This Date In History: American Temperance Union (atheism.about.com/b/a/145391.htm+%22American+Temperance+Union%22&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=6)
American Tract Society

The American Tract Society (ATS) is a publishing organization that publishes evangelistic Christian and temperance literature. It was founded on May 11, 1825 and was a strong supporter of the temperance movement. By 1851 it had distributed about 5,000,000 temperance tracts.

The American Tract Society is currently headquartered in Garland, Texas. It produces tracts, e-tracts, digitracts, and books. Over the years, ATS has produced many millions of pieces of literature.

References:

  • American Tract Society website (iath.Virginia.edu/utc/christn/tracthp.html)
  • Rorabaugh, W.J. The Alcoholic Republic. NY: Oxford University Press, 1979.
Anti-Prohibition Congress

The Anti-Prohibition Congress was held in Brussels in 1922. Attending were politicians from Belgium, Britain, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Italy, Norway, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland. The Congress was viewed as a threat to National Prohibition in the U.S. which at the time, had been in existence less than two years.

The Anti-Prohibition Congress, wrote Commissioner [Roy A. Haynes] of the U.S. [Prohibition Bureau], was working with [Count Albert de Mun], “president of one of the largest champagne companies in France and formerly an extensive exporter to the U.S.”,  to supply money and “the active support of a hundred million European advocates” in an effort to repeal National Prohibition in the U.S. In spite of these assertions, no evidence of  such actions was produced.

Resources

  • Behr, Edward. Prohibition: Thirteen Years that Changed America. NY: Arcade, 1996
    Haynes, Roy A.  Prohibition Inside Out. NY: Doubleday, 1926.
  • Cashman, Sean D. Prohibition: the Lie of the Land. NY: Free Press and London: Collier Macmillan, 1981.
Barr, Daisey Douglas

Daisy Douglas Barr was Imperial Empress (leader) of the Indiana Women's Ku Klux Klan (WKKK) in the early 1920s and an active member of the Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU). Professionally, she was a Quaker minister in two prominent churches.

However, in 1924, the Klan charged that Rev. Barr "had amassed a fortune off the dues of Klansmen." Two years later she was replaced in her leadership position in the WKKK by Lillian Sedwick who was a state official in the WCTU.

References:

  • Hosmer, Dwight W. Daisy Douglas Barr: From Quaker to Klan "Kluckeress." Indiana Magazine of History, 1991 (June), LXXXVII (2).
  • Lantzer, Jason S. Dark Beverages of Hell: The Transformation of Hamilton County's Dry Crusade, 1876-1936. (connerprairie.org/historyonline/fierycross.html)
Board of Temperance Strategy

The Board of Temperance Strategy was established by the Anti-Saloon League to coordinate resistance to the growing public demand for the repeal of National Prohibition (1920-1933) that was occurring by the early 1930s.

The Board of Temperance Strategy consisted of representatives from 33 major anti-alcohol temperance organizations.

References:

  • Roizen, Ron. The American Discovery of Alcoholism. Berkeley, CA: University of California at Berkeley, Ph.D. dissertation, 1991.
  • McConnell, D. W. Temperance Movements. In: Seligman, Edwin R. A., and Johnson, Alvin (Eds.) Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. New York, NY: The Macmillan Co., 1963.
Brehm, Marie C.

A suffragette, Marie Carolyn Brehm was the first legally qualified candidate to run for the vice-presidency of the United States, which she did in 1924 on the ticket of the Prohibition Party.

Marie Brehm was also very active in promoting temperance through her work for the Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU). She served as Superintendent of Franchise of the national WCTU and California State Superintendent of WCTU Institutes.

References:

  • Elections of 1924 (u-s-history.com/pages/h892.html+%22Marie+C.+Brehm%22%22&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=4)
  • The Jasper Douthit Project: Miss Marie C. Brehm (ecolitgy.com/JLD/people.html)
  • Political Graveyard: Marie Brehm (politicalgraveyard.com/bio/breen-brenizer.html+%22Marie+C.+Brehm%22+%22Political+Graveyard%22&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=1)
Brown, Martha McClellan

Martha McClellan Brown (1838-1916) was a major leader in promoting the temperance movement. She was an organizer of the Women’s Christian Temperance Union, a leader in the Prohibition Party, and she and her husband published a temperance newspaper.

Martha McClellan Brown also served as vice-president of the Cincinnati Wesleyan Women's College.

References:

  • Ohio Memory: Martha McClellan Brown (worlddmc.ohiolink.edu/OMP/NewDetails%3Foid%3D2564086+%22Martha+McClellan+Brown%22&hl=en)
  • Encyclopedia Britannica: Martha McClellan Brown
Bubar, Ben

Benjamin Calver Bubar, Jr. (1917-1995), better known as Ben Bubar, was an ordained Baptist minister who actively supported the temperance movement. He was a life-long politician and was, in 1938, the youngest person ever to win election to the Maine House of Representatives.

Ben Bubar was the Prohibition Party candidate for the presidency of the United States in 1976 and 1980. The party has run candidates every year since 1876. Bubar was the last Prohibition Party candidate to have had political experience before running for the presidency.

Reference:

  • Ben Bubar Biography (http://www.prohibitionists.org/History/votes/votes.html)
Cary, Samuel Fenton

Samuel Fenton Cary was an Ohio politician who served in Congress shortly after the Civil War and was the Greenback Party’s candidate for vice-president of the U.S. in 1876. He was a significant temperance movement leader.

Samuel Cary became well-known nationally as a prohibitionist author and lecturer and Cary, North Carolina, was named in his honor.

References:

  • Appleton’s Encyclopedia: Samuel Fenton Cary (famousamericans.net/samuelfentoncary/)
  • Information Please: Samuel Fenton Cary (infoplease.com/biography/us/congress/cary-samuel-fenton.html+%22Samuel+Fenton+Cary%22&hl=en)
Catholic Total Abstinence Union of America

The work of Father Mathew in promoting temperance across the U.S. led to the establishment of numerous separate and independent Catholic temperance groups. The Catholic temperance societies of Connecticut created a state union in 1871, from which a national union was formed the following year at a convention in Baltimore, Maryland. One hundred seventy-seven such societies from ten states and the District of Columbia and representing a total of 26,481 members created the Catholic Total Abstinence Union of America.

The Union included women's and juvenile societies as well as the Priest's Total Abstinence League. Its monthly publication was The C. T. A. U. Advocate.

The Catholic Total Abstinence Society joined the Catholic International Society against Alcoholism founded in 1907 by Father Neumann of Mündt, Prussia. It also participated in the International Congress against Alcohol.

The grave markers of members are sometimes marked with the Catholic Total Abstinence Union of America abbreviation, CTAUOA.

References:

  • Bland, Joan. Hibernian Crusade: the Story of the Catholic Total Abstinence Union of America. Washington: Catholic University of America Press, 1951.
  • The Catholic encyclopedia. NY: Robert Appleton Co., 1912.
  • Gibbs, Joseph C. History of the Catholic Total Abstinence Union of America. Penn Printing House, 1907.
  • How to Interpret Gravestone Abbreviations: CTAUOA (savinggraves.org/education/bookshelf/abbreviations.htm+How+to+Interpret+
    Gravestone+Abbreviations&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=1)
Cherrington, Ernest

Ernest Cherrington was a leading temperance journalist. He became active in the Anti-Saloon League and was appointed editor of the organization's publishing house, the American Issue Publishing Company. Ernest Cherrington edited and contributed to the writing of The Standard Encyclopedia of the Alcohol Problem, a comprehensive six-volume work. In addition, he was active in establishing the World League Against Alcoholism. In reality, the League was opposed to alcohol itself, not simply alcoholism.

Cherrington favored education over the coercive use of force to bring about Prohibition and sobriety, a position in direct opposition to that of Anti-Saloon leader Wayne Wheeler. Following a number of name changes, the league is now the American Council on Alcohol Problems.

Ernest Cherrington remained active in temperance activities until shortly before his death in 1950.

References:

  • Aaron, Paul, and Musto, David. Temperance and Prohibition in America: An Historical Overview. In: Moore, Mark H. , and Gerstein, Dean R. (Eds.) Alcohol and Public Policy: Beyond the Shadow of Prohibition. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1981. Pp. 127-180.
  • Blocker, Jack S. American Temperance Movements: Cycles of Reform. Boston, MA: Twayne, 1989.
  • Cherrington, Ernest. America and the World Liquor Problem. Westerville, OH: American Issue Publishing Co., 1922.
  • Odegard, Peter H. Pressure Politics: The Story of the Anti-Saloon League. NY: Columbia University Press, 1928.
Colvin, D. Leigh

David Leigh Colvin, usually known as D. Leigh Colvin, was born in 1880. He was the Prohibition Party's candidate for U.S. Senator from New York in 1916, the party's candidate for mayor of New York city in 1917, its candidate for the vice-presidency of the United States in 1920, its candidate for U.S. Representative from New York in 1922, and its candidate for the presidency in 1936. Colvin also served as chairman of the Prohibition National Committee from 1926 to 1932.

D. Leigh Colvin was intolerant of those who opposed Prohibition and called members of the Women’s Organization for Prohibition Reform (WONPR) “Bacchantian maidens, parching for wine -- wet women who, like the drunkards whom their program will produce, would take pennies off the eyes of the dead for the sake of legalizing booze.”

References:

  • Cashman, Sean Dennis. Prohibition: The Lie of the Land. NY: Free Press and London: Collier Macmillan, 1981.
  • Colvin, D. Leigh. Prohibition in the United States: A History of the Prohibition Party and of the Prohibition Movement. NY: George H. Doran, 1926.
  • The Political Graveyard (potifos.com/TEST/bio/bio1496.html)
  • Prohibition Party: D. Leigh Colvin (prohibitionists.org/History/votes/votes.html)
  • It’s an Issue? Time, July 16, 1928.
  • In Cadle Tabernacle. Time, July 18, 1932.
  • Rose, Kenneth D. American Women and the Repeal of Prohibition. NY: New York University Press, 1996.
Daniel, William

Prohibition leader William Daniel (1826-1897) graduated from Dickinson College, studied law, and began practicing it in Maryland in 1851. Upon election to the state legislature in 1857, he promoted laws permitting local option regarding the prohibition of alcoholic beverages. Eventually, 13 of the 23 counties in Maryland opted for prohibition.

William Daniel became president of the Maryland Temperance Alliance when it was formed in 1872. He served as chairman of the 1884 national convention of the Prohibition Party, which elected him to serve as its vice-presidential candidate in the 1884 elections.

References:

  • Daniel, W. H. Temperance Reform and Its Great Reformers. NY: Nelson & Phillips, 1879.
  • Dickinson College: William Daniel (1826-1897) (chronicles.dickinson.edu/encyclo/d/ed_danielW.html+%22William+Daniel%22+prohibition&hl=en)
  • Prohibition Presidential/Vice-Presidential Candidates 1872-Present (prohibitionists.org/History/votes/votes.html)
Davis, Edith Smith

Edith Smith Davis was a significant temperance leader. She served as Superintendent of the Bureau of Scientific Investigation and the Department of Scientific Temperance Instruction of both the U.S and the World's Women's Christian Temperance Union. Mrs. Smith also edited The Temperance Education Quarterly from 1910 to 1917.

In 1907 Edith Smith Davis received an honorary Doctor of Letters (Litt.D.) degree from Lawrence University in recognition of her outstanding leadership in the temperance movement.

References:

  • Cornell University: International Women’s Periodicals - Edith Smith Davis
  • (historical.library.cornell.edu/IWP/browse.html+%22Edith+Smith+Davis%22&hl=en)
  • Davis, Edith Smith. The result of teaching the effect of alcohol on the human system.
  • Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 1908 (November), 32, 134-141.
Delevan, Edward C.

Edward C. Delevan was a wealthy businessman who devoted much of his very large fortune to promoting the temperance movement and prohibition.

Delevan helped establish the American Temperance Union; attacked the use of wine in Christian communion or religious ceremonies; established a temperance hotel in Albany, New York; traveled to Europe to promote teetotalism; sent a temperance tract to every soldier in the Union Army during the Civil War for a total of 1,000,000 copies; and sponsored a series of publications. They included the Journal of the American Temperance Union, the Temperance Recorder, the American Temperance Intelligencer; the Enquirer, and the Prohibitionist.

Prohibition or dry towns in both Illinois and Wisconsin were named in honor of Edward C. Delevan.

References:

  • American National Biography: Edward C. Delevan (nysm.nysed.gov/albany/bios/d/ecdelavananb.html+temperance+leader&hl=en)
  • Rumbarger, John J. Profits, Power, and Prohibition. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1989.
Evans, Hiram.

Hiram Wesley Evans was Imperial Wizard (leader) of the "second" Ku Klux Klan (KKK) from 1922 until 1939.

The second Klan, often called the KKK of the 1920s, was established by Methodist minister and Democrat William J. Simmons in 1915 on Stone Mountain near Atlanta, Georgia. The first KKK (1865-1869) existed to oppose Reconstruction and maintain white control over former slaves in the regions of the former Confederate States of America.

The second Klan was also anti-African American, but it had a much wider agenda. The nativist group was also anti-Catholic, anti-Semitic, anti-immigrant, and anti-labor union. On the other hand, it was very supportive of the temperance movement and alcohol prohibition, which it pledged to enforce.

Hiram Evans' books include The Menace of Modern Immigration (1923), The Klan of Tomorrow (1924), Alienism in the Democracy (1927) The Rising Storm (1929), and The Klan Fights for Americanism. Evans' writing ended as the fortunes of the Klan faltered and then imploded by 1930.

References:

  • Alexander, Charles C. The Ku Klux Klan in the Southwest. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1965.
  • Horowitz, David A. Inside the Klavern: The Secret History of a Ku Klux Klan in the 1920s. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1999.
  • Lay, Shawn (Ed.) The Invisible Empire: Toward a New Historical Appraisal of the Ku Klux Klan of the 1920s. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2004.
Faris, Herman P.

Herman P. Faris was born in 1858 and became a banker in Missouri. However, he was a deeply committed proponent of the temperance movement and spent much time and energy promoting it.

Herman Faris served for many years as treasurer of the Prohibition National Committee, was twice the Prohibition Party candidate for governor of Missouri, and was the party's candidate for president of the United States in 1924, during the early years of National Prohibition.

References:

  • Herman P. Faris Biography. (rootsweb.com/~mohenry/biography/hcbioF.htm+%22Herman+P.+Faris%22+prohibition&hl=en)
  • Prohibition Party Presidential/Vice-Presidential Candidates 1872-Present (prohibitionists.org/History/votes/body_votes.html+%22Herman+P.+Faris%22&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=8)
Fisher, Rolland

Rolland Fisher was a Methodist minister and evangelist who actively promoted the prohibition of alcohol.

Fisher was Executive Secretary of the Kansas Prohibition Party in 1948-1950, was State Chairman of the party in 1962-1968, was Vice-Chairman of the Prohibition National Committee in 1963-1967, and was the Prohibition Party candidate for Vice-President of the United States in 1968.

Reference:

  • Prohibition Party: Rolland Fisher (prohibitionists.org/History/votes/votes.html)
Fisk, Clinton B.

General Clinton B. Fisk, for whom Fisk University is named, was a senior officer in the Freedmen's Bureau. He joined the U.S. Army in 1862. After the Civil War (1861-1865), Clinton worked through the Freedmen's Bureau and the American Missionary Association to establish the first free schools in the South for both African American and white children.

Clinton Fisk was a leader in the temperance movement and became the presidential candidate of the Prohibition Party in the election of 1888. He won 249,506 votes, one of the highest results of any candidate of the Prohibition Party, which has run candidates in every presidential election since 1872.

References:

  • In Memoriam: Clinton B. Fisk, December 8, 1828-July 9, 1890. New York: Funk & Wagnall, 1890.
  • Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture: Clinton Bowen Fisk (1828-1890) (tennesseeencyclopedia.net/imagegallery.php?EntryID=F019)
  • Political Graveyard: Clinton Bowen Fisk (prohibitionists.org/History/votes/body_votes.html+%22Herman+P.+Faris%22&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=8)
Flying Squadron of America

The Flying Squadron of America was a temperance organization that staged a nationwide campaign to promote temperance. It consisted of three groups of revivalist-like speakers who toured cities across the country between September 30, 1914 and June 6, 1915.

The Squadron, organized by former Indiana Governor J. Frank Hanly, was sometimes called Hanly's Flying Squadron.

References:

  • Kobler, John. Ardent Spirits: The Rise and Fall of Prohibition. NY: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1973.
  • Indiana State Library: Flying Squadron (statelib.lib.in.us/www/isl/indiana/prohibition.html+%22Flying+Squadron%22+prohibition&hl=en)
Hamblen, Carl Stuart

Carl Stuart Hamblen (1908-1989), often called Stuart Hamblen, became radio's first singing cowboy in 1926. Between 1931 and 1952 Hamblen had a series of highly popular radio programs on the West Coast of the U.S. He composed music and acted in motion pictures with such other stars as Gene Autry, Roy Rogers and John Wayne.

In 1949 Stuart Hamblin experienced a religious conversion at a revival meeting in Los Angeles. He soon gave up his secular radio and film career to enter religious broadcasting with his radio show, "The Cowboy church of the Air."

Stuart Hamblen supported the temperance movement and agreed to run as the Prohibition Party's candidate for president in the 1952 national election.

References:

  • Biography for Stuart Hamblen (imdb.com/name/nm0357388/bio+%22Carl+Stuart+Hamblen%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=11)
  • Carl Stuart Hamblen (members.aol.com/HamblenMC/SH_Bio.html+%22Stuart+Hamblen%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=1&gl=us)
  • Stuart Hamblen (nashvillesongwritersfoundation.com/fame/hamblen.html+%22Carl+Stuart+Hamblen%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=3)
  • Hamblen, Carl Stuart (http://72.14.207.104/search?q=cache:q_5wLmAsGi0J:www.tsha.utexas.edu/handbook/online/articles/HH/fhafq_print.html+%22Carl+Stuart+Hamblen%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=9)
Hammond, John Brown

Like his famous namesake cousin, John Brown, Hammond believed in direct and even violent action on occasion. In this belief, he wrecked a “blind pig” much in the style of Carry Nation. However, he came to pursue non-violent actions through the Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU), the Bone Dry League, and the World Purity Federation.

John Brown Hammond remained staunchly supportive of Prohibition throughout his life, Several months before his death in a nursing home in 1938, he was working to organize "The Eighteenth Amendment Rescue Association." He believed that Prohibition would eventually be re-imposed.

References:

  • Iowa’s Prohibition Leaders: John Brown Hammond (iptv.org/IowaPathways/myPath.cfm?ounid=ob_000093)
  • Ossian, Lisa L. Prohibition Possibly Prohibited: Iowans Voicing Temperance Concerns, 1929-1933. The Social History of Alcohol and Drugs, 2006 (Spring), 20, 225-246.
Holtwick, Enoch A.

Enoch A. Holtwick had a long record of actively supporting the temperance movement. He was the Prohibition Party candidate for Illinois State Treasurer in 1936; its candidate for U.S. Senator from Illinois in 1938, 1940, 1942, 1944, 1948 and 1950; its candidate for vice-president of the United States in 1952; and its candidate for president in 1956.

Enoch Holtwick later moved to California and became president of Los Angeles Pacific Junior College.

References:

  • Enoch A. Holtwick (http://politicalgraveyard.com/bio/holten-hook.html)
  • Our Campaigns: Enoch A. Holtwick (ourcampaigns.com/CandidateDetail.html%3FCandidateID%3D4550+%22Enoch+A.+Holtwick%22+college&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=3)
Intercollegiate Prohibition Association

The Intercollegiate Prohibition Association (IPA) was the Student Department of the World League Against Alcoholism. It was established in Chicago, Illinois, in 1901 and by 1903 was reported to be the third largest college organization in the United States.

The Intercollegiate Prohibition Association conducted “an inquiry” among 158 colleges and universities in 1923 and reported that 136 institutions were in favor of prohibition, eight were against it, and 14 were undetermined. It additionally reported that at 80 out of the 136 institutions in favor of prohibition, support was either by an overwhelming majority or was unanimous.

The leader of the Intercollegiate Prohibition Association was Harry S. Warner, who authored Prohibition: An Adventure in Freedom, in which he argued that reducing personal liberty actually increases personal liberty. He asserted that personal liberty is “greater where drink goes out, even with the heavy hand of law, than it is where drink remains.”

In 1934, a year after the repeal of Prohibition, the name was changed to the Intercollegiate Association for the Study of Alcohol.

References:

  • Odegard, Peter H. Pressure Politics: The Story of the Anti-Saloon League. NY: Columbia University Press, 1928.
  • The third largest college organization in America is the inter-collegiate Prohibition Association. Torch & Witt Today (Wittenberg University), February 1, 1903, p. 203.
  • Rose, Kenneth D. American Women and the Repeal of Prohibition. NY: New York University Press, 1996.
  • Ohio Historical Society: Intercollegiate Prohibition Association (ohiohistory.org/resource/archlib/research/historyday03/temperance.html+%22Intercolleg
Johnson, Hale

Attorney Hale Johnson (1847-1902) left the Republican Party because it did not support an amendment to the United States Constitution mandating national prohibition of alcoholic beverages. He then became "one of the most effective, prominent and influential" prohibitionists in the country, according to one biographer.

In 1896 Hale Johnson was the Prohibition Party candidate for governor of Illinois. Later that year he became the party's candidate for vice-president and campaigned in over 30 states.

Johnson was shot to death in a violent argument while trying to collect a debt.

References:

  • Hale Johnson (bible.acu.edu/stone-campbell/Biogs/johnsnha.htm+%22Hale+Johnson%22+prohibition&hl=en)
  • Biographical Sketch of Hale Johnson (mun.ca/rels/restmov/texts/nhaynes/hdcib/JOHNSNHA.HTM+%22Hale+Johnson%22+prohibition&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=8)
  • Encyclopedia II: 1847 Births (experiencefestival.com/a/1847_-_Births/id/602754+%22Hale+Johnson%22+temperance&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=23)
Knights of Father Mathew

The Knights of Father Mathew was a Catholic temperance society that originated in Ireland and promoted complete abstinence from all alcoholic beverages. It was established in 1838 by Theobald Mathew (generally known as Father Mathew) in Cork, Ireland. Under his influence, branches of the organization spread throughout the country. Father Mathew also traveled in England and Scotland (1842) and in the USA (1849 to 1851) to preach temperance. He was a major world figure in promoting temperance and it has been estimated that 7,000,000 persons took the pledge of abstinence under his influence.

Father Mathew began his work in the U.S. in 1849, at which time he was entertained by the President and granted a seat within the bar of the Senate and on the floor of the House. Only one foreigner, General Lafayette, has previously been given that honor. He was lauded on the occasion by famous statesman Henry Clay.

Father Mathew spent two and one-half years in the country, traveled 37,000 miles, visited 25 states, administered the temperance pledge in over 300 cities and towns to an estimated more than 500,000 persons.

The Knights of Father Mathew organization in the U.S. was established in St. Louis, Missouri, on 26 April, 1872.

In 1881, it added life insurance as a benefit to members, of which there were two categories, active and honorary. To be eligible to active membership, it was necessary to be a practical Catholic, to pass a physical examination, and to be not less than sixteen, nor more than seventy years of age. For honorary membership, it was sufficient to be a “practical Catholic.”

Chapters or “councils” were permitted to organize branches of Catholic women that were called "Ladies' Auxiliaries of the Knights of Father Mathew." The Ladies' Auxiliaries were especially active in promoting temperance among children. Both the Knights of Father Mathew and the Ladies' Auxiliaries of the Knights of Father Mathew were affiliated with the Catholic Total Abstinence Union of America in 1895.

Some members were buried with the abbreviations KFM or K. of F. M. - Knights of Father Mathew - or LAKFM - Ladies Auxiliary of the Knights of Father Mathew on their tombstones.

References:

  • The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIV. Published 1912. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Nihil Obstat, July 1, 1912.
  • Fehlandt, August F. A Century of Drink Reform in the United States. NY: Eaton and Mains, 1904.
  • Nelson, Katherine. The Knights of Father Matthew. In (Jack Blocker, D. Fahey, I. Tyrrel, Eds.) Alcohol and Temperance in Modern History. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2003.
  • Stearns, J. N. (Ed.) Temperance in all Nations. NY: National Temperance Society and Publication House, c. 1893.
Levering, Joshua

Joshua Levering (1845-1928) was a prominent Baptist leader . He was president of the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary in Louisville, Kentucky, vice-president of the Southern Baptist Convention, co-founder of the American Baptist Educational Society, and co-founder of the Layman's Missionary Movement.

Originally a Democrat, Joshua Levering became a member of the Prohibition Party in 1884. He was chairman of the State Prohibition Conventions of 1887 and 1893, and a delegate to the national conventions of 1888 and 1892. Levering became the presidential candidate of the Prohibition Party in the election of 1896 and received 132,007 votes.

References:

  • Prohibition Party: 1896 (projects.vassar.edu/1896/prohibition.html+%22Joshua+Levering%22&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=2)
  • Our Campaigns: Joshua Levering (ourcampaigns.com/CandidateDetail.html%3FCandidateID%3D4078+%22Joshua+Levering%22&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=11)
Merrick, Caroline

Caroline Merrick (d. 1908), according to Frances Willard of the Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU), was a “lady who can make the WCTU a success, even in the volatile city of Mardi Gras.”

After serving as president of her local New Orleans WCTU chapter for ten years, Caroline Merrick became president of the National WCTU in 1882.

References:

  • Asbury, Herbert. Carry Nation. NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 1919.
  • Louisiana State University: Notable Women in History - Caroline Merrick (lib.lsu.edu/soc/women/lawomen/merrick.html)
Methodist Board of Temperance, Prohibition, and Public Morals.

The Methodist Board of Temperance, Prohibition, and Public Morals was a powerful force in the temperance movement. In 1925, it constructed the Methodist Building on Capitol Hill in Washington to increase even further its influence and lobbying power in public policy matters regarding alcoholic beverages.

After National Prohibition was implemented, the Methodist Board promoted its aggressive enforcement. It also attempted to eliminate any criticism or opposition to what many called the Noble Experiment. In 1925, it charged that vaudeville acts and comic strips were being used to dispense wet (anti-prohibition) “propaganda” in New York City, which it called “a foreign city, run by foreigners for foreigners according to foreign ideas.”

The founder of the Methodist Board, Henry True Wilson, advocated mandatory five-year imprisonment for anyone who purchased a pint or more of bootleg alcohol. He urged the government to send the marines to speakeasies and open fire on the occupants if they refused to leave.

The Methodist Board was dissolved after a merger of Methodist denominations in the 1960s and the united church created the General Board of Church and Society (GBCS). The assets of the Society were placed into a trust in 1965, the provisions of which require that all principal and income from the trust’s assets must be used exclusively for “work in the areas of temperance and alcohol problems.”

Some temperance activists are attempting to have the trust’s assets of over $20 million transferred from the GBCS to a new corporation dedicated exclusively to fighting the consumption of alcohol. They allege that the GBCS corporation is funding programs on antiwar, environmental, technological, and dozens of other activities unrelated to reducing the consumption of alcohol. GBCS officials respond that they interpret the trust’s language to include a variety of social causes.

In a separate legal action, Judge Ron Enns of Texas has petitioned not to have the assets transferred to another corporate entity but to enforce the language in the existing trust contract.

References:

  • Burns, Eric. The Spirits of America. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 2004.
  • Kyvig, David. Repealing National Prohibition. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1979.
  • Sali, Sean. Methodist building transfer delayed. Washington Times, May 6, 2004.
  • Sann, Paul. Lawless Decade. NY: Bonanza, 1957.
Munn, E. Harold

E. Harold Munn, who was Academic Dean of Hillsdale College in Hillsdale, Michigan, spent most of his professional life in education.

As a committed advocate for the temperance movement, E. Harold Munn's service to the Prohibition Party included running for public office at the local and state levels in Michigan and three times (1964, 1968, 1972) for the presidency of the United States. He was chairman of the Prohibition National Committee from 1955 to 1971. At the time of his death he was president of the National Prohibition Foundation.

References:

  • Prohibition Party: E. Harold Munn (prohibitionists.org/History/Harold-Munn_bio.htm+E.+Harold+Munn+Presidential+Candidate+(1964,+1968,+1972)&hl=en)
  • Political Graveyard: E. Harold Munn (politicalgraveyard.com/bio/muncell-murdoch.html+%22E.+Harold+Munn%22&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=4)
National Conference of Organizations Supporting the 18th Amendment

In the face of a growing groundswell of opposition to National Prohibition in the late 1920s, the National Temperance Council met in Washington, D.C., in 1930 to devise ways and means of countering the serious threat it posed. There, the 34 organizations composing the National Temperance Council re-organized to form the National Conference of Organizations Supporting the 18th Amendment.

The organization encompassed all the major temperance groups including the Anti-Saloon League, the Women’s Christian Temperance Union, the World League Against Alcoholism, the Flying Squadron Foundation, the World Christian Endeavor, the National United Committee on Law Enforcement, the Southern Baptist Convention, the International Reform Bureau, and the Methodist Episcopal Board of Temperance, Prohibition & Public Morals.

The only major leader not in attendance was Bishop James Cannon Jr., who was scandalized when he was forced to defend himself before a Senate committee against charges of financial irregularities as a lobbyist, before the General Conference of the Methodist Church on charges of immoral sexual conduct, and before a federal grand jury on charges of conspiring to violate the Federal Corrupt Practices Act.

An unsuccessful attempt was made by lay members to be included in the leadership of the National Conference of Organizations Supporting the 18th Amendment on equal terms with members of the clergy.

In executive session the leadership voted against any type or form of referendum on Prohibition as "unauthorized, unconstitutional and unprecedented." The Conference opposed supporting the Prohibition Party or any other third party in the 1932 election.

References:

  • Dry Caucus. Time, December 22, 1930.
  • In Cadle Tabernacle. Time, July 18, 1932.
National Temperance Council

The National Temperance Council was established in 1913 to coordinate the activities of numerous organization in the temperance movement. Its goal was the ratification of an amendment to the United States Constitution outlawing the manufacture, distribution and sale of alcoholic beverages throughout the country. Its effective work contributed to achieving that goal within a few years.

Following the implementation of the Eighteenth Amendment establishing National Prohibition, and in the face of growing opposition to Prohibition, the National Temperance Council reorganized as the National Conference of Organizations Supporting the 18th Amendment.

A National Temperance Council also existed in the United Kingdom.

References:

  • Dry Caucus. Time, December 22, 1930.
  • Short Biographies (freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~petyt/petytbiog.htm+%22National+Temperance+Council%22&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=23)
National Temperance Society and Publishing House

The National Temperance Society and Publishing House was founded at the end of the Civil War in 1865. During its first 60 years, it published over a billion pages of literature in support of the temperance movement.

Its three monthly magazines had a combined circulation of about 600,000. They were The National Temperance Advocate for adults, The Youth's Temperance Banner for adolescents, and The Water Lily for children. The Society also published over 2,000 books and pamphlets in addition to textbooks, posters and flyers.

Among its many books, the National Temperance Society and Publishing House produced a large number of novels including Saved by Sympathetic Kindness and the Grace of God, Slaying the Dragon, Tom’s Trouble, Sought and Saved, and Jug-or-Not. In the latter volume, an entire family and their servants are all “under the demon” of alcohol. A popular non-fiction book the National Temperance Society and Publishing House was One Thousand Temperance Anecdotes, Jokes, riddles, Puns and Smart Sayings, Suitable for Speakers, Readings and recitations.

Although it was founded by James Black, who later became the first presidential candidate of the Prohibition Party in 1872, most supporters of the National Temperance Society and Publishing House opposed the formation of any third party to promote prohibition.

Sources:

  • Kobler, John. Ardent Spirits: the Rise and Fall of Prohibition. NY: G. P. Putnam’s Sons. 1973.
  • Rumbarger, John J. Profits, Power, and Prohibition. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1989.
Prohibition National Committee

The Prohibition National Committee is the governing body of the Prohibition Party of the United States. The party was founded in 1867 and its National Committee has existed since that time. It has nominated a candidate for the presidency of the United States in every election since 1872 and is the third oldest political party in the country.

A faction of the Prohibition National Committee (PNC) asserts that it operates the official web site of the PNC at prohibition.org.

A majority group operates another site (prohibitionists.org) in which it asserts that it represents the PNC. In making its claim, the majority group states that

“All actions of the private, invitational meeting of selected Prohibition National Committee members, held last June, held at Lakewood, Colorado, were declared null and void by an absolute majority of PNC members, meeting at Fairfield Glade, Tennessee on 5-6 September 2003.” (Emphasis in original)

It states that

“An alleged "2003 nominating convention" of the Prohibition Party was held at the Chairman's home in Lakewood, Colorado on June 12-13, 2003. Some members of the National Committee were not notified in advance that the meeting was being held, and others were told by Chairman Earl F. Dodge that they would not be admitted. Eight people were present: Chairman Dodge, his two daughters, and five other members supportive of Dodge. In addition to failing to observe the By-Laws requirement for prior notification, there was not a quorum.”

Other components of the Prohibition Party organizational structure are the National Prohibition Foundation, the Partisan Prohibition Historical Society, the Action!, Prohibitionists’ caucus, and all state and local affiliates.

References:

  • Prohibition Party (majority group)website (prohibitionists.org/body_index.html+%22Prohibition+National+Committee%22&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=4) Prohibition Party (minority group, i.e., Earl Dodge e group) website (prohibition.org/+%22Prohibition+National+Committee%22&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=1)
  • Ron Gunzburger’s Politics1 (politics1.com/prohibition04.htm+%22Prohibition+National+Committee%22&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=6)
  • The Prohibition Party doings (struat.com/election/2004/03/19/the-prohibition-party-doings/+%22Prohibition+National+Committee%22&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=15)
Russell, Howard Hyde

Howard Hyde Russell (1855-1946) was the founder of the Anti-Saloon League. Following a religious conversion, he gave up the practice of law to become a Congregational minister. Long opposed to the consumption of alcohol, he conceived of the League while attending the funeral of an alcoholic woman. At that time he pledged to himself to “go out to my brothers and sisters of the churches, regardless of their name and creed, and I will appeal to them to join their hearts and hands in a movement to destroy this murderous curse” of alcohol.

In pursuit of this promise, Howard Hyde Russell organized the Ohio Anti-Saloon League in 1893. In 1895, after he helped establish the Anti-Saloon League at the national level through a merger of local and state temperance organizations across the country, Russell was elected superintendent of the national organization. In that capacity he mentored future leaders of the league, including Wayne Wheeler and Ernest Cherrington

Russell also established the Lincoln Legion (later to become the Lincoln-Lee Legion in order to attract southern members) to promote the signing of temperance pledges by children and other young people. Although no accurate statistics exist, it appears that millions of young people signed such pledges to abstain from alcohol for life.

Howard Hyde Russell is reported to have raised five million dollars to promote the temperance movement.

References:

  • Aaron, Paul, and Musto, David. Temperance and Prohibition in America: An Historical Overview. In: Moore, Mark H., and Gerstein, Dean R. (eds.) Alcohol and Public Policy: Beyond the Shadow of Prohibition. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1981. Pp. 127-180.
  • Asbury, Herbert. The Great Illusion; An Informal History of Prohibition. NY: Doubleday, 1950.
  • Blocker, Jack S. American Temperance Movements: Cycles of Reform. Boston, MA: Twayne, 1989.
  • Odegard, Peter H. Pressure Politics: The Story of the Anti-Saloon League. NY: Columbia University Press, 1928.
  • Timberlake, James H. Prohibition and the Progressive Movements,: 1900-1920. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1963.
  • Westerville (Ohio) Public Library. Leaders: Howard Hyde Russell. Westerville Public Library website.
Scientific Temperance Federation

The Scientific Temperance Federation was founded in 1906 upon the death of Mary Hunt, head of the Women’s Christian Temperance Union’s Department of Scientific Temperance Instruction.

Mrs. Hunt had avoided accusations that she profited from her supposedly volunteer work by signing over to the Scientific Temperance Association the royalties from the temperance textbooks she wrote and edited for the WCTU. That association, which consisted of Mary Hunt, her pastor, and a few of her friends, used its income to maintain the national headquarters of the Department of Scientific Instruction. That building was also the very large home of Mrs. Hunt.

Upon her death, this arrangement clouded ownership of her estate, which led to the creation of the Scientific Temperance Foundation. Mrs. Hunt’s personal secretary, Cora Stoddard, headed the new organization. Because of the substantial fortune she had amassed in promoting compulsory temperance education, and the tens of millions of textbooks this required, the Scientific Temperance Federation was able to engage in a wide variety of activities to promote the temperance movement and prohibition. A major nation-wide project was an innovative “Education on Wheels” project that took temperance education directly to people at their homes and farms.

With the repeal of prohibition in 1933, the Federation joined the Temperance Education Foundation.

References:

  • Hanson, David J. Alcohol Education. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1996.
  • Anti-Saloon League: Scientific Temperance Federation (westervillelibrary.org/AntiSaloon/resources/scientific_temperance_federation.html+%22Scientific+Temperance+Federation%22&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=4)
Shaw, Mark R.

Mark R. Shaw was a Prohibition Party candidate for the U.S. Senate from Massachusetts in 1946, 1952, 1958, 1960, 1962, 1966 and 1970. He was also the party's candidate for governor of that state in 1948 and in 1956. In 1964, Shaw served as Prohibition Party candidate for vice-president of the United States.

Rev. Mark R. Shaw was a Methodist minister whose father was a traveling evangelist and whose mother was a lecturer for the Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU).

References:

  • Prohibition Party: Mark Revell Shaw
  • (prohibitionists.org/History/votes/votes.html)
  • Political Graveyard: Mark R. Shaw (politicalgraveyard.com/bio/shaw.html+%22Mark+R.+Shaw%22&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=6)
Shuler, Robert P.

The Prohibition Party candidate who received the highest vote of any prohibition candidate in any election in U.S. history was Rev. Robert P. Shuler. In the 1932 California election for the US Senate he received 560,088 votes (25.8%) and carried Orange and Riverside counties. Following his defeat, Shuler “placed an awful curse” on Southern California.

“Fightin” Bob Shuler owned radio station KGFF, which existed from 1926 to 1932. He said that KGFF stood for Keep God Forever First. The temperance movement leader lost the license for his station after his controversial broadcasts attacking Catholics, Jews, African Americans, and the Hollywood elite for their consumption of alcoholic beverages and their alleged dishonesty, corruption, and immorality. However, there is no evidence that he was a member of the Ku Klux Klan, which also strongly supported Prohibition.

Robert P. Shuler was pastor of the Trinity Methodist Church in Los Angeles, California. He is unrelated to the well-known pastor of the Crystal Cathedral in Garden Grove, California.

References:

  • Prohibition Party: Robert P. Shuler (prohibitionists.org/History/body_history.htm+%22rev.+Robert+P.+Shuler%22&hl=en)
  • Oldradio. Oldradio’s Radio/TV Station Call Letter Origins. Oldradio website (oldradio.com/archives/nelson/origins.html+%22Rev.+Robert+P.+shuler%22&hl=en)
  • Prohibition Party. Outline of History (of the Prohibition Party). Prohibition Party website. (prohibitionists.org/History/body_history.htm+%22rev.+Robert+P.+Shuler%22&hl=en)
  • The science and myths of predicting earthquakes. The Supernatural World website (http://72.14.207.104/search?q=cache:oYEeIwfMitcJ:www.thesupernaturalworld.co.uk/index.php%3Fact%3Dmain%26code%3D01%26type%3D00%26topic_id%3D1864+%22Rev.+Robert+P.+Shuler%22&hl=en)
Smith, Green Clay

Green Clay Smith, a Major General in the United States Army, was an ardent supporter of the temperance movement. He served as the presidential candidate of the National Prohibition Party in the election of 1876.

References:

  • Arlington National Cemetery: Green Clay Smith (arlingtoncemetery.net/gcsmith.htm+%22Green+Clay+Smith%22&hl=en)
  • Prohibition Presidential/Vice-Presidential Candidates 1872-present (prohibitionists.org/History/votes/body_votes.html+%22Green+Clay+Smith%22+Prohibition&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=10)
Sons of Temperance

The Sons of Temperance was an organization (brotherhood) of men who promoted temperance and mutual support. It spread rapidly throughout the country during the 1840s.

The brotherhood had a highly restricted membership. In order to become a member (brother), a man had to be nominated by an existing brother. Three other brothers would then investigate his life to determine if they thought he was worthy of membership. The Sons of Temperance required a two-dollar initiation fee, an amount equal to a week’s wages of an ordinary worker. In addition, the weekly membership fee was six cents.

The Sons of Temperance also acted as a mutual insurance company. Its constitution required the brotherhood to pay thirty dollars to cover the burial costs of any brother who died. It also required the payment of fifteen dollars for the funeral costs of a member’s dead wife.

One of the bylaws required fellow brothers to visit any sick brother at least once a day and one of the orders of business at each meeting was to identify any brothers were ill.

References:

  • Sons of Temperance website (btinternet.com/~hanson/sot/history.htm+%22Sons+of+Temperance%22&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=4) Temperance Orders (phoenixmasonry.org/masonicmuseum/fraternalism/temperance_orders.htm+%22Sons+of+Temperance%22&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=5) University of Georgia: Temperance in antebellum Athens (Georgia) (arches.uga.edu/~cwc3/+%22Sons+of+Temperance%22+Macon+Athens&hl=en)
  • Kobler, John. Ardent Spirits: The Rise and Fall of Prohibition. NY: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1973.
Stewart, Gideon T.

Lawyer and newspaper owner-editor Gideon Tabor Stewart (1824-1909) was very active in promoting prohibition. He was elected three times as grand worthy chief templar of the Good Templars of Ohio, a temperance organization. Throughout the 1850s he attempted to organize a permanent prohibition party.

In 1869, Gideon T. Stewart was one of the delegates to the convention that established the national Prohibition Party. Afterward, he served as the party candidate three times for governor of Ohio, seven times for judge on that state's Supreme Court, once for circuit court judge, once for Congress, and once (1876) for vice-president of the United States.

Gideon Stewart’s many publications include The Ballot Test of Temperance (New York: National Temperance Society, 1882 & 1884), Liberty and Union, and The Conflict of Liberty (New York: National Temperance Society and Publication House, 1885), Moral Suasion ... (New York: National Temperance Society and Publication House, 1881 & 1886), and The Prohibition Party against the Rum Power with its Crime Ruled Political Parties and Crime Consenting Churches, from Public Addresses and Writings of Gideon T. Stewart (n.p., 1904)

References:

  • Appleton Encyclopedia: Gideon Tabor Stewart (famousamericans.net/gideontaborstewart)
  • Political Graveyard: Gideon T. Stewart (ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php%3Frec%3D358+%22Eliza+Daniel+Stewart%22&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=2) Gideon Tabor Stewart (myweb.wvnet.edu/~jelkins/lp-2001/stewart_gideon.html+%22Gideon+T.+Stewart%22&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=5)
Temperance Educational Quarterly

The Temperance Educational Quarterly was published by the Department of Scientific Temperance Instruction and the Bureau of Scientific Temperance Investigation of the Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) and the World’s Women’s Christian Temperance Union WWCTU).

The magazine provided scripts for students and teachers to use on Willard Day (sometimes called Temperance Day), printed pledges for pupils to sign, presented quotations on the dangers of alcohol, featured prize-winning student essays, printed stories about the horrible consequences of even drinking in moderation, and provided detailed lesson plans for teaches.

The editor of the Temperance Educational Quarterly, which was published from January of 1910 to October of 1917, was temperance journalist Edith Smith Davis.

References:

  • Hanson, David J. Alcohol Education. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1996.
  • Tyack, David, B., and James, Thomas. Moral majorities and the school curriculum: Historical perspectives on the legalization of virtue. Teachers College Record, 1985, 86, 513-537.
Templars of Honor and Temperance

The Templars of Honor and Temperance is an organization established in 1845 as the Marshall Temperance Fraternity. It then became the Marshall Temple, Sons of Honor, and finally became the Templars of Honor and Temperance. It promoted, as it still does, complete abstinence form all alcoholic beverages.

It is a secret fraternal order whose signs, hand grips, passwords and emblems closely resemble those of the Masonic Fraternity and the Odd Fellows.

The Templars of Honor and Temperance order still exists in Scandinavia, where it is known as Tempel Riddare Orden.

References:

  • Tempel Riddare Orden (tempelriddareorden.org)
  • Masonic Museum: Temperance Orders (phoenixmasonry.org/masonicmuseum/fraternalism/temperance_orders.htm+
    temperance+organization&hl=en) Furnas, J. C. The Late Demon Rum. NY: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1965.
Thompson, Eliza

A lecture by Diocletian Lewis in 1873 inspired Eliza Jane Trimble Thompson, the daughter of a former governor of Ohio and the wife of a judge, to begin leading groups of women into saloons where they sang hymns prayed for the closure if the establishments. These direct, non-violent “Visitation Bands” were successful and quickly spread first across the state of Ohio and then to a total of 22 other states from New York to California.

Crusaders typically met in church to prepare themselves. They then headed to a saloon where they would sing hymns and pray for the saloon to close. They did so inside the saloon, if possible, and if not, they did so outside the saloon .

“Mother Thompson” and others claimed often dramatic conversions by saloon keepers. In other cases, the retailers simply gave up after being picked for weeks by the Visitation Bands. A member of the crusade, who later became president of the National Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)claimed seeing amazing, if not miraculous, success.

In one case, a saloon keeper’s wife turned three vicious dogs on a kneeling crusader. The woman never stopped praying but allegedly simply put her hand on their heads, at which point they reportedly calmly curled up at her feet. In another case, a saloon keeper’s wife shouted verbal abuse at the women. After their leader prayed “Lord, silence this women,” the curser’s mouth allegedly “was shut like a steel trap, and she never spoke another word as long as she lived.”

Within several years the movement subsided. However, it was successful in stimulating the temperance movement, which had declined with the outbreak of the Civil War (1861-1865). The WCTU traces its origins to the Women’s Crusade against alcohol .

References:

  • Bower, Matt. The Women’s Christian Temperance Union is alive and well in R.I. Warwick News, July 3, 2006.
  • Gordon, Elizabeth Putnam. Women Torch-Bearers: The Story of the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union. Evanston, IL: National Woman’s Christian Union, 1924.
  • WCTU. Crusades. (wctu.org/crusades.html+%22Eliza+Thompson%22+crusade+WCTU&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=1)
Upshaw, William D.

William David Upshaw (1866-1952), “Ernest Willie,” served four years in Congress (1918-1924), where he was such a strong proponent of the temperance movement that he became known as the "driest of the dry." He served as vice-president of the Georgia Anti-Saloon League in 1906 and played a major role in passage of state-wide prohibition in that state in 1907, making it the first dry state in the South.

The defense of prohibition was a major factor in the establishment of the second Ku Klux Klan ("Klan of the 1920s") in 1915 at Stone Mountain, near Atlanta. However, William Upshaw was not sympathetic with the Klan, and, on one occasion, ran against a Klan-supported candidate for public office.

In 1932, he was the Prohibition Party candidate for the presidency of the United States, losing to Franklin D. Roosevelt, who favored repeal of Prohibition. For the remainder of his life the was a strong supporter of the prohibition of alcoholic beverages.

William Upshaw’s publications include Clarion Calls from Capitol Hill (1923), Bombshells for Wets and Reds: The Twin Devils of America (1936) and Baptist Water and Methodist Fire (1936).

References:

  • Kobler, John. Ardent Spirits: The Rise and Fall of Prohibition. NY: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1973.
  • Prohibition Party: William D. Upshaw
  • (prohibitionists.org/History/votes/votes.html)
  • William David Upshaw (infoplease.com/biography/us/congress/upshaw-william-david.html+%22Bombshells+for+Wets+and+Reds%22&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=3)
  • In Cadle Tabernacle. Time, July 18, 1932.
Volstead Act

The Volstead Act (officially, the National Prohibition Act of 1919) was designed to provide for the implementation of the Eighteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, which established National Prohibition of alcoholic beverages.

The law was popularly named after congressman Andrew J. Volstead who chaired the Senate Judiciary Committee that oversaw its passage. However, Volstead served as the legislation’s sponsor and facilitator rather than its author. It was the Anti-Saloon League’s Wayne Wheeler who conceived and drafted the bill.

The bill was vetoed by President Woodrow Wilson on both constitutional and ethical grounds but overridden by Congress on the same day, October 28, 1919. The Volstead Act specified that “no person shall manufacture, sell, barter, transport, import, export, deliver, furnish or possess any intoxicating liquor except as authorized by this act.” It did not specifically prohibit the purchase or use of intoxicating liquors. The act defined intoxicating liquor as any beverage over 0.5% alcohol and superseded all existing prohibition laws in effect in states with such legislation.

The Volstead Act’s provisions and their subsequent interpretation by courts were confusing. However, even as written, its provisions were complex. The day before it went into effect the New York Daily News interpreted the law for its readers:

In January of 1933, The Blair Act legalized so-called "3.2 beer" (i.e., beer 3.2% alcohol by weight or 4% by volume). Ratification of the Twenty-First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution repealed the Eighteenth Amendment and with it, both National Prohibition of alcohol and the Volstead Act in December of the same year.

References:

  • Behr, Edward. Prohibition:
  • Thirteen Years that Changed America. NY: Arcade, 1996.
  • Engelmann, Larry. Intemperance: The Lost War Against Liquor. NY: Free Press and London: Collier Macmillan, 1979.
  • Kobler, John. Ardent Spirits: The Rise and Fall of Prohibition. NY: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1973.+
  • Kyvig, David E. Repealing National Prohibition. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 2000.
  • Lender, Mark E. and Martin, James K. Drinking in America: A History. NY: Free Press and London: Collier Macmillan, 1987.
Watkins, Aaron S.

Temperance leader Aaron S. Watkins was president of Absury College in Wilmore, Kentucky. Before his ordination as a Methodist minister, he practiced law with his brother.

Long dedicated to promoting temperance, Watkins served as Prohibition Party candidate for various political offices. They included Attorney-General, Secretary of State, and Governor of Ohio. He twice served as vice-presidential candidate and, in 1920, served as the Prohibition Party candidate for the presidency of the United States.

Aaron Watkins received honorary degrees of Bachelor of Science, Master of Science, Doctor of Laws, Doctor of Divinity, Doctor of Humane Letters an Doctor of Philosophy.

References:

  • Prohibition Party: Aaron Watkins
  • (prohibitionists.org/History/aaron_watkins_bio.htm+%22Aaron+S.+Watkins%22+prohibition&hl=en)
  • Political Graveyard: Aaron S. Watkins (politicalgraveyard.com/bio/watkins-watrous.html+%22Aaron+S.+Watkins%22&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=3)
  • Aaron Sherman Watkins (myweb.wvnet.edu/~jelkins/lp-2001/watkins.html+%22Aaron+S.+Watkins%22&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=10)
Watkins, Dean

W. Dean Watkins, a retired aeronautical engineer, was the Prohibition Party candidate for vice-president of the United States in 2000. Watkins' family has had a long association with the temperance movement. Dean Watkins’ grandfather, Aaron Watkins, was the Prohibition Party candidate for vice-president in 1908 and 1912 and its candidate for president in 1920.

References:

  • Prohibition Party: Dean Watkins (prohibitionists.org/History/votes/votes.html)
  • Political Graveyard: W. Dean Watkins (politicalgraveyard.com/bio/watkins-watrous.html#0TM1EEKDV)
Watson, Claude A.

Claude A. Watson, a former minor league ballplayer, was a lawyer, businessman, and Free Methodist preacher in Los Angeles, California, who was nationally active in promoting prohibition. He was the Prohibition Party candidate for vice-president of the United States in 1936 and was the party's presidential candidate in both 1944 and 1948.

A certified pilot, Claude Watson was the first U.S. presidential candidate in history to fly his own airplane and flew over 16,000 miles campaigning.

References:

  • No Meat, No Drink. Time, August 11, 1947.
  • Political Graveyard: Claude A. Watson (politicalgraveyard.com/bio/watson2.html)
  • Prohibition Presidential/Vice-Presidential Candidates 1872-Present (prohibitionists.org/History/votes/votes.html)
Wickersham Commission

The Wickersham Commission was established in May of 1929 when President Herbert Hoover appointed George W. Wickersham (1858-1936) to head the National Committee on Law Observation and Enforcement, popularly called the Wickersham Commission.

The Commission was an 11-member group that was officially charged with identifying the causes of criminal activity and making recommendations for appropriate public policy. Hoover had apparently created the Wickersham Commission to make recommendation for improving the enforcement of Prohibition so as to undercut the Repeal movement.

The Wickersham Commission documented the widespread evasion of Prohibition and the numerous counterproductive effects it was having on American society. Rather than recommending the repeal of prohibition, as many of Hoover’s opponents hoped and some expected, its report recommended that much more aggressive and extensive law enforcement should be employed in an effort to force compliance.

However, the report also included separate statements by members of the commission, only four of whom supported Prohibition. Member Harry Anderson said that Prohibition violated basic economic laws and that even if complete enforcement were imposed, economic laws would win in the end: “This would inevitably lead to social and political consequences more disastrous than the evils sought to be remedied. Even then the force of social and economic laws would ultimately prevail. These laws cannot be destroyed by governments, but often in the course of human history governments have been destroyed by them.” A majority of members expressed varying degrees opposition to Prohibition.

The highly qualified nature of the report permitted both sides to claim victory. The Wickersham Commission and its report could therefore reasonably be categorized as pro-Prohibition or pro-Repeal. It is arbitrarily placed here in the pro-Repeal category.

References:

  • Lender, Mark E. and Martin, James K. Drinking in America: A History. NY: Free Press and London: Collier Macmillan, 1982.
  • Root, Grace C. Women and Repeal: the Story of the Women’s Organization for National Prohibition Reform. NY: Harper & Brothers,1934.
  • Thornton, Mark. The Economics of Prohibition. Salt Lake City, UT: University of Utah Press, 1991.
  • Vernon, John. The Wickersham Commission and William Monroe Trotter. Negro History Bulletin, 1999 (January-March).
World League Against Alcoholism

The World League Against Alcoholism was established by the Anti-Saloon League, whose goal became establishing prohibition not only in the United States but throughout the entire world.

As ratification of the Eighteenth Amendment creating prohibition neared, Anti-Saloon leader Ernest Cherrington promoted creation of the World League Against Alcoholism. Established in 1919, the new organization cooperated with temperance groups in over 50 countries on six continents. In 1923, sixty-six countries were represented at the first international convention of the World League Against Alcoholism held in Toronto, Canada. The League, of which Cherrington became General Secretary, provided assistance including speakers and educational materials to advance an international temperance movement.

Just as the Anti-Saloon League opposed not only saloons but any consumption of alcohol, the World League Against Alcoholism not only sought to prevent alcoholism but any consumption of alcoholic beverages.

Following repeal of National Prohibition in 1933, the Anti-Saloon League's fortunes fell dramatically and it found itself unable to continue supporting the World League Against Alcoholism.

References:

  • Anti-Saloon League: World League Against Alcoholism (westervillelibrary.org/AntiSaloon/resources/world_league_against_alcoholism.html
    +%22World+League+Against+Alcoholism%22&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=1)
  • World Prohibition (1920-30.com/prohibition/world-prohibition.html+%22World+League+Against+Alcoholism%22&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=8)
  • Heavenward Ho! Time, July 28, 1924.

Resources on Temperance

Especially interesting and useful are:

  • Asbury, Herbert. The Great Illusion: An Informal History of Prohibition. New York: Greenwood Press, 1968 (Originally published 1950).
  • Cashman, Sean D. Prohibition: The Lie of the Land. New York: Free Press, 1981.
  • Furnas, J. C. The Life and Times of the Late Demon Rum. New York: G. P. Punam's Sons, 1965.
  • Kobler, John. Ardent Spirits: The Rise and Fall of Prohibition. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1973.
  • Krout, John A. The Origins of Prohibition. New York: Knopf, 1925.
  • Sinclair, Andrew. Prohibition: The Era of Excess. Boston, MA: Little, Brown & Co., 1962.

Also useful but generally more specialized are:

  • Aaron, Paul, and Musto, David. Temperance and Prohibition in America: An Historical Overview. In: Moore, Mark H., and Gerstein, Dean R. (eds.) Alcohol and Public Policy: Beyond the Shadow of Prohibition. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1981. pp. 127-181.
  • Bader, Robert S. Prohibition in Kansas: A History. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1986.
  • Billings, John S. Physiological Aspects of the Liquor Problem: Investigations Made by and Under the Direction of John 0. Atwater, John S. Billings and Others. Sub- Committee of the Committee of Fifty to Investigate the Liquor Problem. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, 1903. (This is the report on the WCTU’s “Scientific Temperance Instruction”)
  • Cherrington, Ernest H. The Evolution of Prohibition in the United States of America. Westerville, OH: American Issue Press, 1920.
  • Clark, N. H. Deliver Us From Evil: An Interpretation of American Prohibition. New York: Norton, 1976.
  • Engs, Ruth C. Resurgence of a new "clean living" movement in the United States. Journal of School Health, 1991, 61, 155-159.
  • Feldman, Herman. Prohibition: Its Economic and Industrial Aspects. New York: D. Appleton and Co., 1928.
  • Hanson, David J. Preventing Alcohol Abuse: Alcohol, Culture, and Control. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1995.
  • Heath, Dwight, B. The new temperance movement: Through the looking glass. Drugs and Society, 1989, 3, 143-168.
  • Hofstader, Richard. The Age of Reform: From Bryan to F.D.R.. New York: Vintage, 1965.
  • Isaac, Paul E. Prohibition and Politics: Turbulent Decades in Tennessee, 1885-1920. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Press, 1965.
  • Kyvig, David E. Repealing National Prohibition. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1979.
  • Lee, Alfred M. Techniques of social reform: An analysis of the New Prohibition Drive. American Sociological Review, 1944, 9, 65-77. Reprinted as the New Prohibition Drive. In: McCarthy, Raymond G. (ed.) Drinking and Intoxication: Selected Readings in Social Attitudes and Controls. New Haven, CT: College and University Press, 1959. pp. 412-428.
  • Lender, Mark E., and Martin, James K. Drinking in America: A History. New York: The Free Press, 1982.
  • Levine, Harry. The birth of American alcohol control: Prohibition, the lawlessness. Contemporary Drug Problems, 1985, 12, 63-115.
  • McConnell, D. W. Temperance Movements. In: Seligman, Edwin R. A., and Johnson, Alvin (eds.) Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. New York, NY: The Macmillan Co., 1963.
  • Mendelson, Jack H., and Mello, Nancy K. Alcohol: Use and Abuse in America. Boston, MA: Little, Brown & Co., 1985.
  • Merz, Charles. The Dry Decade. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press, 1969. (Contains a new introduction by the author. Originally published in 1930.)
  • Odegard, Peter H. Pressure Politics: The Story of the Anti-Saloon League. New York: Columbia University Press, 1928.
  • Prendergast, Michael L. A History of Alcohol Problem Prevention Efforts in the United States. In: Holder, Harold D. (ed.) Control Issues on Alcohol Abuse Prevention: Strategies for States and Communities. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1987. pp. 25- 52.
  • Rorabaugh, William J. The Alcoholic Republic: An American Tradition. New York: Oxford University Press, 1979.
  • Rorabaugh, William J. Alcohol in America. Magazine of History, 1991, 6, 17-19.
  • Rubin, Jay L. The Wet War: American Liquor Control, 1941-1945. In: Blocker, Jr., Jack S. (Ed.) Alcohol, Reform and Society: The Liquor Issue in Social Context. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1979. pp. 235-258.
  • Schmidt, Laura A. “A battle not man's but God's": Origins of the American temperance crusade in the struggle for religious authority. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 1995, 56, 110-121.
  • Thomton, Mark. The Economics of Prohibition. Salt Lake City, UT: University of Utah Press, 1991.
  • Tietsort, Francis J., (ed.) Temperance—or Prohibition? New York: American, 1929.
  • Timberlake, James H. Prohibition and the Progressive Movement, 1900-1920. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1963.
  • Willebrandt, Mabel W. The Inside of Prohibition. Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill, 1929.

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